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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.17 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.16 2004/10/20 08:55:31 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10     <section>
11     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
12     <subsection>
13     <title>Introduction</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
18     successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
19     architecture.
20     </p>
21    
22     </body>
23     </subsection>
24     <subsection>
25     <title>The Alpha Architecture</title>
26     <body>
27    
28     <p>
29     Check the following requirements before you
30     continue with the Gentoo installation:
31     </p>
32    
33     <ul>
34     <li>
35     You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
36     </li>
37     <li>
38     For the <e>Alpha architecture</e>, you should check with the <uri
39     link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
40     </li>
41     </ul>
42    
43     </body>
44     </subsection>
45     </section>
46     <section>
47     <title>Make your Choice</title>
48     <subsection>
49     <title>Introduction</title>
50     <body>
51    
52     <p>
53     Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
54     choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
55     choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
56     Gentoo base system.
57     </p>
58    
59     <p>
60     The installation media we will describe are:
61     </p>
62    
63     <ul>
64     <li>The Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</li>
65     </ul>
66    
67     <p>
68     Before we continue, let's explain our three-stage installation.
69     </p>
70    
71     </body>
72     </subsection>
73     <subsection>
74     <title>The Three Stages</title>
75     <body>
76    
77     <p>
78     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
79     The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
80     yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
81     build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
82     building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
83     The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
84     been built for you.
85     </p>
86    
87     <p>
88     Now what stage do you have to choose?
89     </p>
90    
91     <p>
92     Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
93     optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
94     initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
95     power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
96     installation method for those who would like to know more about the
97     inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
98     </p>
99    
100 swift 1.7 <p>
101     A <e>stage1</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
102     Internet connection.
103     </p>
104    
105 swift 1.1 <table>
106     <tr>
107     <th>Stage1</th>
108     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
109     </tr>
110     <tr>
111     <th>+</th>
112     <ti>
113     Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
114     build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
115     </ti>
116     </tr>
117     <tr>
118     <th>+</th>
119     <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
120     </tr>
121     <tr>
122     <th>+</th>
123     <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
124     </tr>
125     <tr>
126     <th>-</th>
127     <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
128     </tr>
129     <tr>
130     <th>-</th>
131     <ti>
132     If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
133     </ti>
134     </tr>
135 swift 1.7 <tr>
136     <th>-</th>
137     <ti>
138     Not suitable for networkless installations
139     </ti>
140     </tr>
141 swift 1.1 </table>
142    
143     <p>
144     <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
145     is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
146     for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
147     </p>
148    
149 swift 1.7 <p>
150     A <e>stage2</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
151     Internet connection.
152     </p>
153    
154 swift 1.1 <table>
155     <tr>
156     <th>Stage2</th>
157     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
158     </tr>
159     <tr>
160     <th>+</th>
161     <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
162     </tr>
163     <tr>
164     <th>+</th>
165     <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
166     </tr>
167     <tr>
168     <th>+</th>
169     <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
170     </tr>
171     <tr>
172     <th>-</th>
173     <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
174     </tr>
175     <tr>
176     <th>-</th>
177     <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
178     </tr>
179     <tr>
180     <th>-</th>
181     <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
182     </tr>
183 swift 1.7 <tr>
184     <th>-</th>
185     <ti>
186     Not suitable for networkless installations
187     </ti>
188     </tr>
189 swift 1.1 </table>
190    
191     <p>
192     Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
193     Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
194     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
195     and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
196     stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
197 swift 1.6 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
198 swift 1.1 </p>
199    
200     <table>
201     <tr>
202     <th>Stage3</th>
203     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
204     </tr>
205     <tr>
206     <th>+</th>
207     <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
208     </tr>
209     <tr>
210 swift 1.7 <th>+</th>
211     <ti>Suitable for networkless installations</ti>
212     </tr>
213     <tr>
214 swift 1.1 <th>-</th>
215     <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
216     </tr>
217     <tr>
218     <th>-</th>
219     <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
220     </tr>
221     </table>
222    
223     <p>
224     Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
225     you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
226     be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
227     after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
228     with the new optimization settings.
229     </p>
230    
231     <p>
232     Now take a look at the available installation media.
233     </p>
234    
235     </body>
236     </subsection>
237     <subsection>
238     <title>The Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</title>
239     <body>
240    
241     <p>
242     The <e>Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</e> is a bootable CD which contain a
243     self-sustained Gentoo environment. It allows you to boot Linux from the CD.
244     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
245     are loaded. It is maintained by Gentoo developers.
246     </p>
247    
248     <p>
249     The <e>Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</e> is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole
250     purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue with the
251     Gentoo installation. It does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a
252     single stage1 file), source code or precompiled packages. For example the
253     alpha variant of this LiveCD can be found in the
254     <path>releases/1.4_rc1/alpha</path> subdirectory and is called
255     <c>gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2</c>.
256     </p>
257    
258     </body>
259     </subsection>
260     </section>
261     <section>
262     <title>Download, Burn and Boot the Gentoo LiveCD</title>
263     <subsection>
264     <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
265     <body>
266    
267     <p>
268     You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
269     wrong document). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
270     LiveCD.
271     </p>
272    
273     <p>
274     Visit one of our <uri
275     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
276     <path>releases/1.4rc1/alpha</path> which is where the LiveCD(s) of your choice
277     are located. Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are
278     full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.
279     </p>
280    
281     <p>
282     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
283     check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
284     <path>gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2.md5sum</path>). You can check the MD5
285     checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
286 neysx 1.11 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
287 swift 1.1 </p>
288    
289     <p>
290     Once downloaded, decompress the ISO file (as it is stored in a compressed format
291     using the Burrows-Wheeler text compression algorithm) using <c>bunzip2</c> (on
292     Unix/Linux systems):
293     </p>
294    
295     <pre caption="Decompressing the iso.bz2 file">
296     # <i>bunzip2 gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2</i>
297     </pre>
298    
299     <p>
300 swift 1.8 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
301     verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
302     <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
303     </p>
304    
305     <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
306 swift 1.12 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058</i>
307 swift 1.8 </pre>
308    
309     <p>
310     Now verify the signature:
311     </p>
312    
313     <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
314 swift 1.12 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
315 swift 1.8 </pre>
316    
317     <p>
318 swift 1.1 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
319 swift 1.9 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
320     <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
321     link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
322 swift 1.1 </p>
323    
324     <ul>
325     <li>
326     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
327     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
328     by the path to the ISO file :)
329     </li>
330 swift 1.2 <li>
331 bennyc 1.5 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
332     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
333 swift 1.2 <c>Start</c>.
334     </li>
335 swift 1.1 </ul>
336    
337     </body>
338     </subsection>
339     <subsection>
340     <title>Booting the Alpha LiveCD(s)</title>
341     <body>
342    
343     <p>
344     When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
345     firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
346     are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
347     Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
348     </p>
349    
350     <p>
351     SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
352     operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARM
353     is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
354 vapier 1.14 an operating environment for Windows NT. You can find a
355     <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/SRM-HOWTO/">detailed guide</uri> on
356     using SRM over at the Alpha Linux website.
357 swift 1.1 </p>
358    
359     <p>
360     If your Alpha system supports both SRC and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
361     should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
362     instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
363     are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
364     will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
365     </p>
366    
367     <p>
368     Now to boot an Alpha LiveCD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the system.
369     You can use SRM to boot the LiveCD. If you cannot do that, you will have to use
370     <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already, use one of the
371     precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
372     link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
373     </p>
374    
375     <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
376     <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
377     &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
378     dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
379     <comment>(...)</comment>
380     <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
381     &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
382     </pre>
383    
384     <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
385     <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
386     MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:boot/vmlinuz initrd=initrd.img root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc</i>
387     </pre>
388    
389     <p>
390     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
391     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
392     started on by pressing Alt-F1.
393     </p>
394    
395     <p>
396     Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
397     </p>
398    
399     </body>
400     </subsection>
401     <subsection id="hardware">
402     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
403     <body>
404    
405     <p>
406     When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
407     loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
408     vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
409     SPARC LiveCDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
410     modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
411     hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
412     </p>
413    
414     <p>
415     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
416     certain kinds of network interfaces):
417     </p>
418    
419     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
420     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
421     </pre>
422    
423     </body>
424     </subsection>
425     <subsection>
426     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
427     <body>
428    
429     <p>
430     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
431     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
432     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
433     more precise impression):
434     </p>
435    
436     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
437     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
438     </pre>
439    
440     <p>
441     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
442     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
443     disk):
444     </p>
445    
446     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
447     <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
448     <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
449     </pre>
450    
451     </body>
452     </subsection>
453 swift 1.13 <subsection id="useraccounts">
454 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
455     <body>
456    
457     <p>
458     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
459     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
460     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
461     the root password.
462     </p>
463    
464     <p>
465     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
466     </p>
467    
468     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
469     # <i>passwd</i>
470     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
471     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
472     </pre>
473    
474     <p>
475 swift 1.4 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
476 swift 1.1 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
477     In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
478     </p>
479    
480     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
481     # <i>useradd john</i>
482     # <i>passwd john</i>
483     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
484     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
485     </pre>
486    
487     <p>
488     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
489     <c>su</c>:
490     </p>
491    
492     <pre caption="Changing user id">
493 swift 1.15 # <i>su - john</i>
494 swift 1.1 </pre>
495    
496     </body>
497     </subsection>
498     <subsection>
499 swift 1.13 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
500     <body>
501    
502     <p>
503     If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
504     installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
505     link="#useraccouts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
506     go to a new terminal and log in.
507     </p>
508    
509     <p>
510     If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
511 swift 1.16 <c>lynx</c> to read it:
512 swift 1.13 </p>
513    
514     <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
515 swift 1.16 # <i>lynx /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
516 swift 1.13 </pre>
517    
518     <p>
519     However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
520 swift 1.16 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>lynx</c>
521 swift 1.13 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
522     chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
523     document):
524     </p>
525    
526     <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
527 swift 1.16 # <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-alpha.xml</i>
528 swift 1.13 </pre>
529    
530     <p>
531     You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
532     </p>
533    
534     </body>
535     </subsection>
536     <subsection>
537 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
538     <body>
539    
540     <p>
541     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
542     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
543     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
544     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
545     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
546     </p>
547    
548     <p>
549     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
550     </p>
551    
552     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
553     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
554     </pre>
555    
556     <p>
557 swift 1.17 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
558 swift 1.1 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
559     </p>
560    
561     </body>
562     </subsection>
563     </section>
564     </sections>

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