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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.21 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.10 2004/11/09 13:05:40 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.20
11     <version>1.19</version>
12     <date>November 4, 2004</date>
13    
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Introduction</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22     successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
23     architecture.
24     </p>
25    
26     </body>
27     </subsection>
28     <subsection>
29     <title>The Alpha Architecture</title>
30     <body>
31    
32     <p>
33     Check the following requirements before you
34     continue with the Gentoo installation:
35     </p>
36    
37     <ul>
38     <li>
39     You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
40     </li>
41     <li>
42     For the <e>Alpha architecture</e>, you should check with the <uri
43     link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
44     </li>
45     </ul>
46    
47     </body>
48     </subsection>
49     </section>
50     <section>
51     <title>Make your Choice</title>
52     <subsection>
53     <title>Introduction</title>
54     <body>
55    
56     <p>
57     Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
58     choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
59     choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
60     Gentoo base system.
61     </p>
62    
63     <p>
64     The installation media we will describe are:
65     </p>
66    
67     <ul>
68     <li>The Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</li>
69     </ul>
70    
71     <p>
72     Before we continue, let's explain our three-stage installation.
73     </p>
74    
75     </body>
76     </subsection>
77     <subsection>
78     <title>The Three Stages</title>
79     <body>
80    
81     <p>
82     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
83     The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
84     yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
85     build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
86     building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
87     The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
88     been built for you.
89     </p>
90    
91     <p>
92     Now what stage do you have to choose?
93     </p>
94    
95     <p>
96     Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
97     optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
98     initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
99     power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
100     installation method for those who would like to know more about the
101     inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
102     </p>
103    
104 swift 1.7 <p>
105     A <e>stage1</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
106     Internet connection.
107     </p>
108    
109 swift 1.1 <table>
110     <tr>
111     <th>Stage1</th>
112     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
113     </tr>
114     <tr>
115     <th>+</th>
116     <ti>
117     Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
118     build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
119     </ti>
120     </tr>
121     <tr>
122     <th>+</th>
123     <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
124     </tr>
125     <tr>
126     <th>+</th>
127     <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
128     </tr>
129     <tr>
130     <th>-</th>
131     <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
132     </tr>
133     <tr>
134     <th>-</th>
135     <ti>
136     If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
137     </ti>
138     </tr>
139 swift 1.7 <tr>
140     <th>-</th>
141     <ti>
142     Not suitable for networkless installations
143     </ti>
144     </tr>
145 swift 1.1 </table>
146    
147     <p>
148     <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
149     is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
150     for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
151     </p>
152    
153 swift 1.7 <p>
154     A <e>stage2</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
155     Internet connection.
156     </p>
157    
158 swift 1.1 <table>
159     <tr>
160     <th>Stage2</th>
161     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
162     </tr>
163     <tr>
164     <th>+</th>
165     <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
166     </tr>
167     <tr>
168     <th>+</th>
169     <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
170     </tr>
171     <tr>
172     <th>+</th>
173     <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
174     </tr>
175     <tr>
176     <th>-</th>
177     <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
178     </tr>
179     <tr>
180     <th>-</th>
181     <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
182     </tr>
183     <tr>
184     <th>-</th>
185     <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
186     </tr>
187 swift 1.7 <tr>
188     <th>-</th>
189     <ti>
190     Not suitable for networkless installations
191     </ti>
192     </tr>
193 swift 1.1 </table>
194    
195     <p>
196     Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
197     Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
198     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
199     and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
200     stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
201 swift 1.6 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
202 swift 1.1 </p>
203    
204     <table>
205     <tr>
206     <th>Stage3</th>
207     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
208     </tr>
209     <tr>
210     <th>+</th>
211     <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
212     </tr>
213     <tr>
214 swift 1.7 <th>+</th>
215     <ti>Suitable for networkless installations</ti>
216     </tr>
217     <tr>
218 swift 1.1 <th>-</th>
219     <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
220     </tr>
221     <tr>
222     <th>-</th>
223     <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
224     </tr>
225     </table>
226    
227     <p>
228     Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
229     you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
230     be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
231     after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
232     with the new optimization settings.
233     </p>
234    
235     <p>
236     Now take a look at the available installation media.
237     </p>
238    
239     </body>
240     </subsection>
241     <subsection>
242     <title>The Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</title>
243     <body>
244    
245     <p>
246     The <e>Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</e> is a bootable CD which contain a
247     self-sustained Gentoo environment. It allows you to boot Linux from the CD.
248     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
249     are loaded. It is maintained by Gentoo developers.
250     </p>
251    
252     <p>
253     The <e>Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</e> is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole
254     purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue with the
255     Gentoo installation. It does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a
256     single stage1 file), source code or precompiled packages. For example the
257     alpha variant of this LiveCD can be found in the
258     <path>releases/1.4_rc1/alpha</path> subdirectory and is called
259     <c>gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2</c>.
260     </p>
261    
262     </body>
263     </subsection>
264     </section>
265     <section>
266     <title>Download, Burn and Boot the Gentoo LiveCD</title>
267     <subsection>
268     <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
269     <body>
270    
271     <p>
272     You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
273     wrong document). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
274     LiveCD.
275     </p>
276    
277     <p>
278     Visit one of our <uri
279     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
280     <path>releases/1.4rc1/alpha</path> which is where the LiveCD(s) of your choice
281     are located. Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are
282     full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.
283     </p>
284    
285     <p>
286     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
287     check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
288     <path>gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2.md5sum</path>). You can check the MD5
289     checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
290 neysx 1.11 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
291 swift 1.1 </p>
292    
293     <p>
294     Once downloaded, decompress the ISO file (as it is stored in a compressed format
295     using the Burrows-Wheeler text compression algorithm) using <c>bunzip2</c> (on
296     Unix/Linux systems):
297     </p>
298    
299     <pre caption="Decompressing the iso.bz2 file">
300     # <i>bunzip2 gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2</i>
301     </pre>
302    
303     <p>
304 swift 1.8 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
305     verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
306     <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
307     </p>
308    
309     <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
310 swift 1.12 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058</i>
311 swift 1.8 </pre>
312    
313     <p>
314     Now verify the signature:
315     </p>
316    
317     <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
318 swift 1.12 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
319 swift 1.8 </pre>
320    
321     <p>
322 swift 1.1 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
323 swift 1.9 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
324     <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
325     link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
326 swift 1.1 </p>
327    
328     <ul>
329     <li>
330     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
331     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
332     by the path to the ISO file :)
333     </li>
334 swift 1.2 <li>
335 bennyc 1.5 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
336     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
337 swift 1.2 <c>Start</c>.
338     </li>
339 swift 1.1 </ul>
340    
341     </body>
342     </subsection>
343     <subsection>
344     <title>Booting the Alpha LiveCD(s)</title>
345     <body>
346    
347     <p>
348     When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
349     firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
350     are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
351     Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
352     </p>
353    
354     <p>
355     SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
356     operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARM
357     is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
358 vapier 1.14 an operating environment for Windows NT. You can find a
359     <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/SRM-HOWTO/">detailed guide</uri> on
360     using SRM over at the Alpha Linux website.
361 swift 1.1 </p>
362    
363     <p>
364     If your Alpha system supports both SRC and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
365     should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
366     instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
367     are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
368     will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
369     </p>
370    
371     <p>
372     Now to boot an Alpha LiveCD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the system.
373     You can use SRM to boot the LiveCD. If you cannot do that, you will have to use
374     <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already, use one of the
375     precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
376     link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
377     </p>
378    
379     <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
380     <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
381     &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
382     dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
383     <comment>(...)</comment>
384     <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
385     &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
386     </pre>
387    
388     <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
389     <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
390     MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:boot/vmlinuz initrd=initrd.img root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc</i>
391     </pre>
392    
393     <p>
394     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
395     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
396     started on by pressing Alt-F1.
397     </p>
398    
399     <p>
400     Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
401     </p>
402    
403     </body>
404     </subsection>
405     <subsection id="hardware">
406     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
407     <body>
408    
409     <p>
410     When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
411     loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
412     vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
413     SPARC LiveCDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
414     modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
415     hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
416     </p>
417    
418     <p>
419     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
420     certain kinds of network interfaces):
421     </p>
422    
423     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
424     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
425     </pre>
426    
427     </body>
428     </subsection>
429     <subsection>
430     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
431     <body>
432    
433     <p>
434     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
435     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
436     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
437     more precise impression):
438     </p>
439    
440     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
441     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
442     </pre>
443    
444     <p>
445     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
446     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
447     disk):
448     </p>
449    
450     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
451     <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
452     <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
453     </pre>
454    
455     </body>
456     </subsection>
457 swift 1.13 <subsection id="useraccounts">
458 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
459     <body>
460    
461     <p>
462     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
463     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
464     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
465     the root password.
466     </p>
467    
468     <p>
469     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
470     </p>
471    
472     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
473     # <i>passwd</i>
474     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
475     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
476     </pre>
477    
478     <p>
479 swift 1.4 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
480 swift 1.1 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
481     In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
482     </p>
483    
484     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
485 swift 1.18 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
486 swift 1.1 # <i>passwd john</i>
487     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
488     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
489     </pre>
490    
491     <p>
492     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
493     <c>su</c>:
494     </p>
495    
496     <pre caption="Changing user id">
497 swift 1.15 # <i>su - john</i>
498 swift 1.1 </pre>
499    
500     </body>
501     </subsection>
502     <subsection>
503 swift 1.13 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
504     <body>
505    
506     <p>
507     If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
508     installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
509 neysx 1.19 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
510 swift 1.13 go to a new terminal and log in.
511     </p>
512    
513     <p>
514     If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
515 swift 1.16 <c>lynx</c> to read it:
516 swift 1.13 </p>
517    
518     <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
519 swift 1.16 # <i>lynx /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
520 swift 1.13 </pre>
521    
522     <p>
523     However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
524 swift 1.16 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>lynx</c>
525 swift 1.13 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
526     chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
527     document):
528     </p>
529    
530     <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
531 swift 1.16 # <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-alpha.xml</i>
532 swift 1.13 </pre>
533    
534     <p>
535     You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
536     </p>
537    
538     </body>
539     </subsection>
540     <subsection>
541 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
542     <body>
543    
544     <p>
545     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
546     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
547     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
548     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
549     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
550     </p>
551    
552     <p>
553     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
554     </p>
555    
556     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
557     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
558     </pre>
559    
560     <p>
561 swift 1.17 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
562 swift 1.1 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
563     </p>
564    
565     </body>
566     </subsection>
567     </section>
568     </sections>

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