/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.24 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Tue Jan 4 18:11:20 2005 UTC (9 years, 9 months ago) by swift
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.23: +165 -123 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Separation of Gentoo Handbook into Current and 2004.3

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.24 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.12 2004/12/31 18:15:53 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.20
11 swift 1.24 <version>1.20</version>
12     <date>2005-01-04</date>
13 swift 1.20
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Introduction</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 swift 1.24 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 swift 1.1 </p>
24    
25     </body>
26     </subsection>
27     <subsection>
28 swift 1.24 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 swift 1.1 <body>
30    
31 swift 1.24 <table>
32     <tr>
33     <th>CPU</th>
34     <ti>
35     Please check with the <uri
36     link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
37     </ti>
38     </tr>
39     <tr>
40     <th>Memory</th>
41     <ti>64 MB</ti>
42     </tr>
43     <tr>
44     <th>Diskspace</th>
45     <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
46     </tr>
47     <tr>
48     <th>Swap space</th>
49     <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
50     </tr>
51     </table>
52 swift 1.1
53     </body>
54     </subsection>
55     </section>
56 swift 1.24 <!-- Copy/paste from the hb-install-x86-medium.xml file but no Universal LiveCD.
57     Also s/x86/alpha -->
58     <!-- START -->
59 swift 1.1 <section>
60 swift 1.24 <title>The Gentoo Installation Approaches</title>
61 swift 1.1 <subsection>
62     <title>Introduction</title>
63     <body>
64    
65     <p>
66 swift 1.24 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
67     A stage file is a tarball (compressed archive) that contains a minimal
68     environment.
69 swift 1.1 </p>
70    
71     <ul>
72 swift 1.24 <li>
73     A stage1 file contains nothing more than a compiler, Portage (Gentoo's
74     software management system) and a couple of packages on which the compiler
75     or Portage depends.
76     </li>
77     <li>
78     A stage2 file contains a so-called bootstrapped system, a minimal
79     environment from which one can start building all other necessary
80     applications that make a Gentoo environment complete.
81     </li>
82     <li>
83     A stage3 file contains a prebuilt minimal system which is almost fully
84     deployable. It only lacks a few applications where you, the Gentoo user,
85     needs to choose which one you want to install.
86     </li>
87 swift 1.1 </ul>
88    
89     <p>
90 swift 1.24 To help you decide what stage file you want to use, we have written down the
91     major advantages and disadvantages of each stage file.
92 swift 1.1 </p>
93    
94     </body>
95     </subsection>
96     <subsection>
97 swift 1.24 <title>A Stage1 Approach</title>
98 swift 1.1 <body>
99    
100     <p>
101 swift 1.24 A <e>stage1</e> is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire system
102     from scratch.
103 swift 1.1 </p>
104    
105     <p>
106 swift 1.24 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the
107 swift 1.1 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
108     initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
109     power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
110     installation method for those who would like to know more about the
111     inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
112     </p>
113    
114     <table>
115     <tr>
116     <th>Stage1</th>
117     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
118     </tr>
119     <tr>
120     <th>+</th>
121     <ti>
122     Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
123     build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
124     </ti>
125     </tr>
126     <tr>
127     <th>+</th>
128     <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
129     </tr>
130     <tr>
131     <th>+</th>
132     <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
133     </tr>
134     <tr>
135     <th>-</th>
136     <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
137     </tr>
138     <tr>
139     <th>-</th>
140     <ti>
141 swift 1.24 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is a waste of time
142 swift 1.7 </ti>
143     </tr>
144 swift 1.1 </table>
145    
146 swift 1.24 </body>
147     </subsection>
148     <subsection>
149     <title>A Stage2 Approach</title>
150     <body>
151    
152 swift 1.1 <p>
153 swift 1.24 A <e>stage2</e> is used for building the entire system from a bootstrapped
154     "semi-compiled" state.
155 swift 1.1 </p>
156    
157 swift 1.7 <p>
158 swift 1.24 Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process; doing this
159     is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
160     for your particular stage2 tarball.
161 swift 1.7 </p>
162    
163 swift 1.1 <table>
164     <tr>
165     <th>Stage2</th>
166     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
167     </tr>
168     <tr>
169     <th>+</th>
170     <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
171     </tr>
172     <tr>
173     <th>+</th>
174     <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
175     </tr>
176     <tr>
177     <th>+</th>
178     <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
179     </tr>
180     <tr>
181     <th>-</th>
182     <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
183     </tr>
184     <tr>
185     <th>-</th>
186 swift 1.24 <ti>It's still not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
187 swift 1.1 </tr>
188     <tr>
189     <th>-</th>
190     <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
191     </tr>
192     </table>
193    
194 swift 1.24 </body>
195     </subsection>
196     <subsection>
197     <title>A Stage3 Approach</title>
198     <body>
199    
200     <p>
201     A <e>stage3</e> installation contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been
202     built for you. You will only need to build a few packages of which we can't
203     decide for you which one to choose.
204     </p>
205    
206 swift 1.1 <p>
207 swift 1.24 Choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
208 swift 1.1 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
209     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
210     and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
211 swift 1.24 stability). Stage3 is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
212 swift 1.6 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
213 swift 1.1 </p>
214    
215     <table>
216     <tr>
217     <th>Stage3</th>
218     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
219     </tr>
220     <tr>
221     <th>+</th>
222     <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
223     </tr>
224     <tr>
225     <th>-</th>
226     <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
227     </tr>
228     </table>
229    
230     <p>
231 swift 1.24 You might be interested to know that, if you decide to use different
232     optimization settings after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to
233     recompile your entire system with the new optimization settings.
234 swift 1.1 </p>
235    
236 swift 1.24 </body>
237     </subsection>
238     </section>
239     <section>
240     <title>The Gentoo LiveCDs</title>
241     <subsection>
242     <title>Introduction</title>
243     <body>
244    
245 swift 1.1 <p>
246 swift 1.24 The <e>Gentoo LiveCDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
247     self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
248     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
249     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
250     </p>
251    
252     <p>
253     All LiveCDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
254     partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
255     two LiveCDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long as you're
256     planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the latest version
257     of the available packages.
258     </p>
259    
260     <p>
261     If you whish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, please use
262     the installation instructions described in the <uri
263     link="2004.3/index.xml">Gentoo 2004.3 Handbooks</uri>. This is currently not
264     supported for the Alpha architecture though.
265     </p>
266    
267     <p>
268     For the Alpha architecture, we only provide a <e>Minimal</e> LiveCD,
269     a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
270     system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation.
271 swift 1.1 </p>
272    
273     </body>
274     </subsection>
275     <subsection>
276 swift 1.24 <title>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</title>
277 swift 1.1 <body>
278    
279     <p>
280 swift 1.24 The Minimal LiveCD is called <c>install-alpha-minimal-2004.3-r1.iso</c> and
281     takes up only 54 MB of diskspace. You can use this LiveCD to install Gentoo,
282     but always with a working Internet connection only.
283 swift 1.1 </p>
284    
285 swift 1.24 <table>
286     <tr>
287     <th>Minimal LiveCD</th>
288     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
289     </tr>
290     <tr>
291     <th>+</th>
292     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
293     </tr>
294     <tr>
295     <th>+</th>
296     <ti>
297     You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
298     net
299     </ti>
300     </tr>
301     <tr>
302     <th>-</th>
303     <ti>
304     Contains no stages, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and is
305     therefore not suitable for networkless installation
306     </ti>
307     </tr>
308     </table>
309 swift 1.1
310     </body>
311     </subsection>
312     </section>
313 swift 1.24 <!-- STOP -->
314 swift 1.1 <section>
315 swift 1.24 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD</title>
316 swift 1.1 <subsection>
317     <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
318     <body>
319    
320     <p>
321 swift 1.24 You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD. We'll first start by downloading and
322     burning the chosen LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available
323     LiveCDs, but where can you find them?
324 swift 1.1 </p>
325    
326     <p>
327 swift 1.24 You can download any of the LiveCDs (and, if you want to, a Packages CD as
328     well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
329     LiveCDs are located in the <path>releases/alpha/2004.3/livecd</path> directory.
330     </p>
331    
332     <p>
333     Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images
334     which you can write on a CD-R.
335 swift 1.1 </p>
336    
337     <p>
338     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
339     check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
340 swift 1.24 <path>install-alpha-minimal-2004.3.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5 checksum
341     with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
342 neysx 1.11 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
343 swift 1.1 </p>
344    
345     <p>
346 swift 1.8 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
347     verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
348     <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
349     </p>
350    
351     <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
352 swift 1.12 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058</i>
353 swift 1.8 </pre>
354    
355     <p>
356     Now verify the signature:
357     </p>
358    
359     <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
360 swift 1.12 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
361 swift 1.8 </pre>
362    
363     <p>
364 swift 1.1 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
365 swift 1.9 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
366     <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
367     link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
368 swift 1.1 </p>
369    
370     <ul>
371     <li>
372 swift 1.24 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
373     file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
374     device path) followed by the path to the ISO file :)
375 swift 1.1 </li>
376 swift 1.2 <li>
377 bennyc 1.5 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
378     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
379 swift 1.2 <c>Start</c>.
380     </li>
381 swift 1.1 </ul>
382    
383     </body>
384     </subsection>
385     <subsection>
386 swift 1.24 <title>Booting the LiveCD</title>
387 swift 1.1 <body>
388    
389     <p>
390     When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
391     firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
392     are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
393     Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
394     </p>
395    
396     <p>
397     SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
398     operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARM
399     is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
400 vapier 1.14 an operating environment for Windows NT. You can find a
401     <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/SRM-HOWTO/">detailed guide</uri> on
402     using SRM over at the Alpha Linux website.
403 swift 1.1 </p>
404    
405     <p>
406     If your Alpha system supports both SRC and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
407     should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
408     instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
409     are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
410     will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
411     </p>
412    
413     <p>
414     Now to boot an Alpha LiveCD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the system.
415     You can use SRM to boot the LiveCD. If you cannot do that, you will have to use
416     <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already, use one of the
417     precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
418     link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
419     </p>
420    
421     <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
422     <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
423     &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
424     dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
425     <comment>(...)</comment>
426     <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
427     &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
428     </pre>
429    
430     <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
431     <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
432     MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:boot/vmlinuz initrd=initrd.img root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc</i>
433     </pre>
434    
435     <p>
436     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
437     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
438     started on by pressing Alt-F1.
439     </p>
440    
441     <p>
442     Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
443     </p>
444    
445     </body>
446     </subsection>
447     <subsection id="hardware">
448     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
449     <body>
450    
451     <p>
452     When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
453     loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
454     vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
455     SPARC LiveCDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
456     modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
457     hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
458     </p>
459    
460     <p>
461     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
462     certain kinds of network interfaces):
463     </p>
464    
465     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
466     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
467     </pre>
468    
469     </body>
470     </subsection>
471     <subsection>
472     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
473     <body>
474    
475     <p>
476     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
477     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
478     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
479     more precise impression):
480     </p>
481    
482     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
483     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
484     </pre>
485    
486     <p>
487     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
488     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
489     disk):
490     </p>
491    
492     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
493     <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
494     <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
495     </pre>
496    
497     </body>
498     </subsection>
499 swift 1.13 <subsection id="useraccounts">
500 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
501     <body>
502    
503     <p>
504     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
505     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
506     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
507     the root password.
508     </p>
509    
510     <p>
511     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
512     </p>
513    
514     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
515     # <i>passwd</i>
516     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
517     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
518     </pre>
519    
520     <p>
521 swift 1.4 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
522 swift 1.1 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
523     In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
524     </p>
525    
526     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
527 swift 1.18 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
528 swift 1.1 # <i>passwd john</i>
529     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
530     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
531     </pre>
532    
533     <p>
534     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
535     <c>su</c>:
536     </p>
537    
538     <pre caption="Changing user id">
539 swift 1.15 # <i>su - john</i>
540 swift 1.1 </pre>
541    
542     </body>
543     </subsection>
544     <subsection>
545 swift 1.13 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
546     <body>
547    
548     <p>
549     If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
550     installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
551 neysx 1.19 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
552 swift 1.13 go to a new terminal and log in.
553     </p>
554    
555     <p>
556     If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
557 swift 1.16 <c>lynx</c> to read it:
558 swift 1.13 </p>
559    
560     <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
561 swift 1.16 # <i>lynx /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
562 swift 1.13 </pre>
563    
564     <p>
565     However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
566 swift 1.16 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>lynx</c>
567 swift 1.13 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
568     chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
569     document):
570     </p>
571    
572     <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
573 swift 1.16 # <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-alpha.xml</i>
574 swift 1.13 </pre>
575    
576     <p>
577     You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
578     </p>
579    
580     </body>
581     </subsection>
582     <subsection>
583 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
584     <body>
585    
586     <p>
587     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
588     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
589     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
590     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
591     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
592     </p>
593    
594     <p>
595     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
596     </p>
597    
598     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
599     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
600     </pre>
601    
602     <p>
603 swift 1.17 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
604 swift 1.1 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
605     </p>
606    
607     </body>
608     </subsection>
609     </section>
610     </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20