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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.28 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.27 2005/02/14 15:55:13 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.20
11 swift 1.28 <version>2.00</version>
12     <date>2005-03-28</date>
13 swift 1.20
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Introduction</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 swift 1.24 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 swift 1.1 </p>
24    
25     </body>
26     </subsection>
27     <subsection>
28 swift 1.24 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 swift 1.1 <body>
30    
31 swift 1.24 <table>
32     <tr>
33     <th>CPU</th>
34     <ti>
35     Please check with the <uri
36     link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
37     </ti>
38     </tr>
39     <tr>
40     <th>Memory</th>
41     <ti>64 MB</ti>
42     </tr>
43     <tr>
44     <th>Diskspace</th>
45     <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
46     </tr>
47     <tr>
48     <th>Swap space</th>
49     <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
50     </tr>
51     </table>
52 swift 1.1
53     </body>
54     </subsection>
55     </section>
56 swift 1.28 <!-- Copy/paste from the hb-install-x86-medium.xml file. -->
57 swift 1.24 <!-- START -->
58 swift 1.1 <section>
59 swift 1.24 <title>The Gentoo Installation Approaches</title>
60 swift 1.1 <subsection>
61     <title>Introduction</title>
62     <body>
63    
64     <p>
65 swift 1.24 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
66     A stage file is a tarball (compressed archive) that contains a minimal
67     environment.
68 swift 1.1 </p>
69    
70     <ul>
71 swift 1.24 <li>
72     A stage1 file contains nothing more than a compiler, Portage (Gentoo's
73     software management system) and a couple of packages on which the compiler
74     or Portage depends.
75     </li>
76     <li>
77     A stage2 file contains a so-called bootstrapped system, a minimal
78     environment from which one can start building all other necessary
79     applications that make a Gentoo environment complete.
80     </li>
81     <li>
82     A stage3 file contains a prebuilt minimal system which is almost fully
83     deployable. It only lacks a few applications where you, the Gentoo user,
84     needs to choose which one you want to install.
85     </li>
86 swift 1.1 </ul>
87    
88     <p>
89 swift 1.24 To help you decide what stage file you want to use, we have written down the
90     major advantages and disadvantages of each stage file.
91 swift 1.1 </p>
92    
93     </body>
94     </subsection>
95     <subsection>
96 swift 1.24 <title>A Stage1 Approach</title>
97 swift 1.1 <body>
98    
99     <p>
100 swift 1.24 A <e>stage1</e> is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire system
101     from scratch.
102 swift 1.1 </p>
103    
104     <p>
105 swift 1.24 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the
106 swift 1.1 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
107     initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
108     power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
109     installation method for those who would like to know more about the
110     inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
111     </p>
112    
113     <table>
114     <tr>
115     <th>Stage1</th>
116     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
117     </tr>
118     <tr>
119     <th>+</th>
120     <ti>
121     Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
122     build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
123     </ti>
124     </tr>
125     <tr>
126     <th>+</th>
127     <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
128     </tr>
129     <tr>
130     <th>+</th>
131     <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
132     </tr>
133     <tr>
134     <th>-</th>
135     <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
136     </tr>
137     <tr>
138     <th>-</th>
139     <ti>
140 swift 1.24 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is a waste of time
141 swift 1.7 </ti>
142     </tr>
143 swift 1.1 </table>
144    
145 swift 1.24 </body>
146     </subsection>
147     <subsection>
148     <title>A Stage2 Approach</title>
149     <body>
150    
151 swift 1.1 <p>
152 swift 1.24 A <e>stage2</e> is used for building the entire system from a bootstrapped
153     "semi-compiled" state.
154 swift 1.1 </p>
155    
156 swift 1.7 <p>
157 swift 1.24 Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process; doing this
158     is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
159     for your particular stage2 tarball.
160 swift 1.7 </p>
161    
162 swift 1.1 <table>
163     <tr>
164     <th>Stage2</th>
165     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
166     </tr>
167     <tr>
168     <th>+</th>
169     <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
170     </tr>
171     <tr>
172     <th>+</th>
173     <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
174     </tr>
175     <tr>
176     <th>+</th>
177     <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
178     </tr>
179     <tr>
180     <th>-</th>
181     <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
182     </tr>
183     <tr>
184     <th>-</th>
185 swift 1.24 <ti>It's still not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
186 swift 1.1 </tr>
187     <tr>
188     <th>-</th>
189     <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
190     </tr>
191     </table>
192    
193 swift 1.24 </body>
194     </subsection>
195     <subsection>
196     <title>A Stage3 Approach</title>
197     <body>
198    
199     <p>
200     A <e>stage3</e> installation contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been
201     built for you. You will only need to build a few packages of which we can't
202     decide for you which one to choose.
203     </p>
204    
205 swift 1.1 <p>
206 swift 1.24 Choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
207 swift 1.1 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
208     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
209     and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
210 swift 1.24 stability). Stage3 is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
211 swift 1.6 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
212 swift 1.1 </p>
213    
214     <table>
215     <tr>
216     <th>Stage3</th>
217     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
218     </tr>
219     <tr>
220     <th>+</th>
221     <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
222     </tr>
223     <tr>
224     <th>-</th>
225     <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
226     </tr>
227     </table>
228    
229     <p>
230 swift 1.24 You might be interested to know that, if you decide to use different
231     optimization settings after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to
232     recompile your entire system with the new optimization settings.
233 swift 1.1 </p>
234    
235 swift 1.24 </body>
236     </subsection>
237     </section>
238     <section>
239 swift 1.28 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
240 swift 1.24 <subsection>
241     <title>Introduction</title>
242     <body>
243    
244 swift 1.1 <p>
245 swift 1.28 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
246 swift 1.24 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
247     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
248     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
249     </p>
250    
251     <p>
252 swift 1.28 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
253 swift 1.24 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
254 swift 1.28 two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
255     as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
256     latest version of the available packages.
257 swift 1.24 </p>
258    
259     <p>
260 swift 1.26 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, please use
261 swift 1.24 the installation instructions described in the <uri
262 swift 1.28 link="2005.0/index.xml">Gentoo 2005.0 Handbooks</uri>.
263 swift 1.24 </p>
264    
265     <p>
266 swift 1.28 The two Installation CDs we currently provide are:
267     </p>
268    
269     <ul>
270     <li>
271     The Gentoo Minimal Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which
272     sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue
273     with the Gentoo installation.
274     </li>
275     <li>
276     The Gentoo Universal Installation CD, a bootable CD with the same abilities
277     as the Minimal Installation CD. Additionally, it contains a stage1 and
278     several stage3 tarballs (optimized for the individual subarchitectures).
279     </li>
280     </ul>
281    
282     <p>
283     To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
284     major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
285 swift 1.1 </p>
286    
287     </body>
288     </subsection>
289     <subsection>
290 swift 1.28 <title>Gentoo's Minimal Installation CD</title>
291 swift 1.1 <body>
292    
293     <p>
294 swift 1.28 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-minimal-2005.0.iso</c>
295     and takes up only 54 MB of diskspace. You can use this Installation CD to
296     install Gentoo, but always with a working Internet connection only.
297 swift 1.1 </p>
298    
299 swift 1.24 <table>
300     <tr>
301 swift 1.28 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
302 swift 1.24 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
303     </tr>
304     <tr>
305     <th>+</th>
306     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
307     </tr>
308     <tr>
309     <th>+</th>
310     <ti>
311     You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
312     net
313     </ti>
314     </tr>
315     <tr>
316     <th>-</th>
317     <ti>
318     Contains no stages, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and is
319     therefore not suitable for networkless installation
320     </ti>
321     </tr>
322     </table>
323 swift 1.1
324     </body>
325     </subsection>
326 swift 1.28 <subsection>
327     <title>Gentoo's Universal Installation CD</title>
328     <body>
329    
330     <p>
331     The Universal Installation CD is called <c>install-x86-universal-2005.0.iso</c>
332     and consumes the entire surface of a 650 MB CD. You can use this Installation CD
333     to install Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working
334     internet connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than
335     the one you are currently installing Gentoo on :)
336     </p>
337    
338     <table>
339     <tr>
340     <th>Universal Installation CD</th>
341     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
342     </tr>
343     <tr>
344     <ti>+</ti>
345     <ti>
346     Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
347     connection.
348     </ti>
349     </tr>
350     <tr>
351     <ti>-</ti>
352     <ti>
353     Huge download
354     </ti>
355     </tr>
356     </table>
357    
358     </body>
359     </subsection>
360     <subsection>
361     <title>Other CDs</title>
362     <body>
363    
364     <p>
365     You might find a so-called Package CD on one of our mirrors. This CD is no
366     Installation CD but an additional resource that can be exploited during a
367     networkless installation. It contains prebuilt packages (the so-called GRP set)
368     that allows you to easily and quickly install additional applications (such as
369     OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the networkless Gentoo
370     installation.
371     </p>
372    
373     </body>
374     </subsection>
375 swift 1.1 </section>
376 swift 1.24 <!-- STOP -->
377 swift 1.1 <section>
378 swift 1.28 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
379 swift 1.1 <subsection>
380 swift 1.28 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
381 swift 1.1 <body>
382    
383     <p>
384 swift 1.28 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
385     downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
386     the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
387 swift 1.1 </p>
388    
389     <p>
390 swift 1.28 You can download any of the Installation CDs (and, if you want to, a Packages
391     CD as well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
392     Installation CDs are located in the <path>releases/alpha/2005.0/installcd</path>
393     directory.
394 swift 1.24 </p>
395    
396     <p>
397     Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images
398     which you can write on a CD-R.
399 swift 1.1 </p>
400    
401     <p>
402     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
403     check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
404 swift 1.28 <path>install-alpha-minimal-2005.0.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5
405     checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
406 neysx 1.11 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
407 swift 1.1 </p>
408    
409     <p>
410 swift 1.8 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
411     verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
412     <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
413     </p>
414    
415     <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
416 swift 1.12 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058</i>
417 swift 1.8 </pre>
418    
419     <p>
420     Now verify the signature:
421     </p>
422    
423     <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
424 swift 1.12 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
425 swift 1.8 </pre>
426    
427     <p>
428 swift 1.1 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
429 swift 1.9 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
430     <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
431     link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
432 swift 1.1 </p>
433    
434     <ul>
435     <li>
436 swift 1.24 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
437     file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
438 swift 1.27 device path).
439 swift 1.1 </li>
440 swift 1.2 <li>
441 bennyc 1.5 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
442     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
443 swift 1.2 <c>Start</c>.
444     </li>
445 swift 1.1 </ul>
446    
447     </body>
448     </subsection>
449     <subsection>
450 swift 1.28 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
451 swift 1.1 <body>
452    
453     <p>
454     When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
455     firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
456     are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
457     Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
458     </p>
459    
460     <p>
461     SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
462 swift 1.28 operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARC
463 swift 1.1 is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
464 vapier 1.14 an operating environment for Windows NT. You can find a
465     <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/SRM-HOWTO/">detailed guide</uri> on
466     using SRM over at the Alpha Linux website.
467 swift 1.1 </p>
468    
469     <p>
470     If your Alpha system supports both SRC and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
471     should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
472     instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
473     are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
474     will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
475     </p>
476    
477     <p>
478 swift 1.28 Now to boot an Alpha Installation CD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the
479     system. You can use SRM to boot the Installation CD. If you cannot do that, you
480     will have to use <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already,
481     use one of the precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
482 swift 1.1 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
483     </p>
484    
485     <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
486     <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
487     &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
488     dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
489     <comment>(...)</comment>
490     <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
491     &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
492     </pre>
493    
494     <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
495     <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
496 vapier 1.25 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo initrd=/boot/gentoo.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
497 swift 1.1 </pre>
498    
499     <p>
500     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
501     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
502     started on by pressing Alt-F1.
503     </p>
504    
505     <p>
506     Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
507     </p>
508    
509     </body>
510     </subsection>
511     <subsection id="hardware">
512     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
513     <body>
514    
515     <p>
516 swift 1.28 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
517 swift 1.1 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
518 swift 1.28 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may
519     not auto-load the kernel
520 swift 1.1 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
521     hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
522     </p>
523    
524     <p>
525     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
526     certain kinds of network interfaces):
527     </p>
528    
529     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
530     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
531     </pre>
532    
533     </body>
534     </subsection>
535     <subsection>
536     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
537     <body>
538    
539     <p>
540     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
541     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
542     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
543     more precise impression):
544     </p>
545    
546     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
547     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
548     </pre>
549    
550     <p>
551     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
552     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
553     disk):
554     </p>
555    
556     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
557     <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
558     <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
559     </pre>
560    
561     </body>
562     </subsection>
563 swift 1.13 <subsection id="useraccounts">
564 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
565     <body>
566    
567     <p>
568     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
569     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
570     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
571     the root password.
572     </p>
573    
574     <p>
575     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
576     </p>
577    
578     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
579     # <i>passwd</i>
580     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
581     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
582     </pre>
583    
584     <p>
585 swift 1.4 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
586 swift 1.1 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
587     In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
588     </p>
589    
590     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
591 swift 1.18 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
592 swift 1.1 # <i>passwd john</i>
593     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
594     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
595     </pre>
596    
597     <p>
598     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
599     <c>su</c>:
600     </p>
601    
602     <pre caption="Changing user id">
603 swift 1.15 # <i>su - john</i>
604 swift 1.1 </pre>
605    
606     </body>
607     </subsection>
608     <subsection>
609 swift 1.13 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
610     <body>
611    
612     <p>
613     If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
614     installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
615 neysx 1.19 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
616 swift 1.13 go to a new terminal and log in.
617     </p>
618    
619     <p>
620     If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
621 swift 1.16 <c>lynx</c> to read it:
622 swift 1.13 </p>
623    
624     <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
625 swift 1.16 # <i>lynx /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
626 swift 1.13 </pre>
627    
628     <p>
629     However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
630 swift 1.16 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>lynx</c>
631 swift 1.13 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
632     chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
633     document):
634     </p>
635    
636     <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
637 swift 1.16 # <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-alpha.xml</i>
638 swift 1.13 </pre>
639    
640     <p>
641     You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
642     </p>
643    
644     </body>
645     </subsection>
646     <subsection>
647 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
648     <body>
649    
650     <p>
651     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
652     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
653     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
654     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
655     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
656     </p>
657    
658     <p>
659     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
660     </p>
661    
662     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
663     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
664     </pre>
665    
666     <p>
667 swift 1.17 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
668 swift 1.1 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
669     </p>
670    
671     </body>
672     </subsection>
673     </section>
674     </sections>

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