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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.3 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.2 2004/04/11 13:17:59 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10     <section>
11     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
12     <subsection>
13     <title>Introduction</title>
14     <body>
15    
16     <p>
17     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
18     successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
19     architecture.
20     </p>
21    
22     </body>
23     </subsection>
24     <subsection>
25     <title>The Alpha Architecture</title>
26     <body>
27    
28     <p>
29     Check the following requirements before you
30     continue with the Gentoo installation:
31     </p>
32    
33     <ul>
34     <li>
35     You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
36     </li>
37     <li>
38     For the <e>Alpha architecture</e>, you should check with the <uri
39     link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
40     </li>
41     </ul>
42    
43     </body>
44     </subsection>
45     </section>
46     <section>
47     <title>Make your Choice</title>
48     <subsection>
49     <title>Introduction</title>
50     <body>
51    
52     <p>
53     Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
54     choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
55     choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
56     Gentoo base system.
57     </p>
58    
59     <p>
60     The installation media we will describe are:
61     </p>
62    
63     <ul>
64     <li>The Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</li>
65     </ul>
66    
67     <p>
68     Before we continue, let's explain our three-stage installation.
69     </p>
70    
71     </body>
72     </subsection>
73     <subsection>
74     <title>The Three Stages</title>
75     <body>
76    
77     <p>
78     Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
79     The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
80     yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
81     build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
82     building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
83     The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
84     been built for you.
85     </p>
86    
87     <p>
88     Now what stage do you have to choose?
89     </p>
90    
91     <p>
92     Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
93     optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
94     initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
95     power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
96     installation method for those who would like to know more about the
97     inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
98     </p>
99    
100     <table>
101     <tr>
102     <th>Stage1</th>
103     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
104     </tr>
105     <tr>
106     <th>+</th>
107     <ti>
108     Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
109     build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
110     </ti>
111     </tr>
112     <tr>
113     <th>+</th>
114     <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
115     </tr>
116     <tr>
117     <th>+</th>
118     <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
119     </tr>
120     <tr>
121     <th>-</th>
122     <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
123     </tr>
124     <tr>
125     <th>-</th>
126     <ti>
127     If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
128     </ti>
129     </tr>
130     </table>
131    
132     <p>
133     <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
134     is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
135     for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
136     </p>
137    
138     <table>
139     <tr>
140     <th>Stage2</th>
141     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
142     </tr>
143     <tr>
144     <th>+</th>
145     <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
146     </tr>
147     <tr>
148     <th>+</th>
149     <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
150     </tr>
151     <tr>
152     <th>+</th>
153     <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
154     </tr>
155     <tr>
156     <th>-</th>
157     <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
158     </tr>
159     <tr>
160     <th>-</th>
161     <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
162     </tr>
163     <tr>
164     <th>-</th>
165     <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
166     </tr>
167     </table>
168    
169     <p>
170     Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
171     Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
172     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
173     and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
174     stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
175     prebuilt packages.
176     </p>
177    
178     <table>
179     <tr>
180     <th>Stage3</th>
181     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
182     </tr>
183     <tr>
184     <th>+</th>
185     <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
186     </tr>
187     <tr>
188     <th>-</th>
189     <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
190     </tr>
191     <tr>
192     <th>-</th>
193     <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
194     </tr>
195     </table>
196    
197     <p>
198     Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
199     you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
200     be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
201     after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
202     with the new optimization settings.
203     </p>
204    
205     <p>
206     Now take a look at the available installation media.
207     </p>
208    
209     </body>
210     </subsection>
211     <subsection>
212     <title>The Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</title>
213     <body>
214    
215     <p>
216     The <e>Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</e> is a bootable CD which contain a
217     self-sustained Gentoo environment. It allows you to boot Linux from the CD.
218     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
219     are loaded. It is maintained by Gentoo developers.
220     </p>
221    
222     <p>
223     The <e>Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</e> is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole
224     purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue with the
225     Gentoo installation. It does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a
226     single stage1 file), source code or precompiled packages. For example the
227     alpha variant of this LiveCD can be found in the
228     <path>releases/1.4_rc1/alpha</path> subdirectory and is called
229     <c>gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2</c>.
230     </p>
231    
232     </body>
233     </subsection>
234     </section>
235     <section>
236     <title>Download, Burn and Boot the Gentoo LiveCD</title>
237     <subsection>
238     <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
239     <body>
240    
241     <p>
242     You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
243     wrong document). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
244     LiveCD.
245     </p>
246    
247     <p>
248     Visit one of our <uri
249     link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
250     <path>releases/1.4rc1/alpha</path> which is where the LiveCD(s) of your choice
251     are located. Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are
252     full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.
253     </p>
254    
255     <p>
256     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
257     check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
258     <path>gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2.md5sum</path>). You can check the MD5
259     checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
260     link="http://www.md5summer.org">md5summer</uri> for Windows.
261     </p>
262    
263     <p>
264     Once downloaded, decompress the ISO file (as it is stored in a compressed format
265     using the Burrows-Wheeler text compression algorithm) using <c>bunzip2</c> (on
266     Unix/Linux systems):
267     </p>
268    
269     <pre caption="Decompressing the iso.bz2 file">
270     # <i>bunzip2 gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2</i>
271     </pre>
272    
273     <p>
274     To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
275     do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss a couple of popular
276     tools on how to do this.
277     </p>
278    
279     <ul>
280     <li>
281     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
282     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
283     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
284     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
285     </li>
286     <li>
287     With Nero Burning ROM, select <c>File</c>, <c>Burn CD image</c>. Set the
288     type of file to <c>*.*</c> and select the ISO file. Older versions of Nero
289     will tell you they don't recognize the format -- confirm here, it does
290     recognize it but doesn't know it yet :) In the next dialog, set the
291     following parameters:
292     <ul>
293     <li>Type of image: <c>Data Mode 1</c></li>
294     <li>Block size: <c>2048 bytes</c></li>
295     <li>File precursor and length of the image trailer: <c>0 bytes</c></li>
296     <li>Scrambled: <c>no</c></li>
297     <li>Swapped: <c>no</c></li>
298     </ul>
299     Now click on <c>OK</c> and then <c>Burn</c> (the CD-R)
300     </li>
301     <li>
302     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
303     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
304     by the path to the ISO file :)
305     </li>
306 swift 1.2 <li>
307     With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. The
308     under the 'Image to Burn' area, locate the ISO file. Finally click
309     <c>Start</c>.
310     </li>
311 swift 1.1 </ul>
312    
313     </body>
314     </subsection>
315     <subsection>
316     <title>Booting the Alpha LiveCD(s)</title>
317     <body>
318    
319     <p>
320     When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
321     firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
322     are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
323     Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
324     </p>
325    
326     <p>
327     SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
328     operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARM
329     is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
330     an operating environment for Windows NT.
331     </p>
332    
333     <p>
334     If your Alpha system supports both SRC and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
335     should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
336     instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
337     are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
338     will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
339     </p>
340    
341     <p>
342     Now to boot an Alpha LiveCD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the system.
343     You can use SRM to boot the LiveCD. If you cannot do that, you will have to use
344     <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already, use one of the
345     precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
346     link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
347     </p>
348    
349     <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
350     <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
351     &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
352     dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
353     <comment>(...)</comment>
354     <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
355     &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
356     </pre>
357    
358     <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
359     <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
360     MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:boot/vmlinuz initrd=initrd.img root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc</i>
361     </pre>
362    
363     <p>
364     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
365     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
366     started on by pressing Alt-F1.
367     </p>
368    
369     <p>
370     Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
371     </p>
372    
373     </body>
374     </subsection>
375     <subsection id="hardware">
376     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
377     <body>
378    
379     <p>
380     When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
381     loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
382     vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
383     SPARC LiveCDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
384     modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
385     hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
386     </p>
387    
388     <p>
389     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
390     certain kinds of network interfaces):
391     </p>
392    
393     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
394     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
395     </pre>
396    
397     </body>
398     </subsection>
399     <subsection>
400     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
401     <body>
402    
403     <p>
404     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
405     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
406     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
407     more precise impression):
408     </p>
409    
410     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
411     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
412     </pre>
413    
414     <p>
415     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
416     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
417     disk):
418     </p>
419    
420     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
421     <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
422     <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
423     </pre>
424    
425     </body>
426     </subsection>
427     <subsection>
428     <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
429     <body>
430    
431     <p>
432     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
433     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
434     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
435     the root password.
436     </p>
437    
438     <p>
439     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
440     </p>
441    
442     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
443     # <i>passwd</i>
444     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
445     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
446     </pre>
447    
448     <p>
449 swift 1.3 To create a user account, we first enter his/her credentials, followed by
450 swift 1.1 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
451     In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
452     </p>
453    
454     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
455     # <i>useradd john</i>
456     # <i>passwd john</i>
457     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
458     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
459     </pre>
460    
461     <p>
462     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
463     <c>su</c>:
464     </p>
465    
466     <pre caption="Changing user id">
467     # <i>su john -</i>
468     </pre>
469    
470     </body>
471     </subsection>
472     <subsection>
473     <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
474     <body>
475    
476     <p>
477     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
478     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
479     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
480     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
481     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
482     </p>
483    
484     <p>
485     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
486     </p>
487    
488     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
489     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
490     </pre>
491    
492     <p>
493     To be able to use sshd, you first need to setup your networking. Continue with
494     the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
495     </p>
496    
497     </body>
498     </subsection>
499     </section>
500     </sections>

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