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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 neysx 1.32 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.31 2005/04/10 11:32:20 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.20
11 neysx 1.32 <version>2.4</version>
12     <date>2005-05-24</date>
13 swift 1.20
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Introduction</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 swift 1.24 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 swift 1.1 </p>
24    
25     </body>
26     </subsection>
27     <subsection>
28 swift 1.24 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 swift 1.1 <body>
30    
31 swift 1.24 <table>
32     <tr>
33     <th>CPU</th>
34     <ti>
35     Please check with the <uri
36     link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
37     </ti>
38     </tr>
39     <tr>
40     <th>Memory</th>
41     <ti>64 MB</ti>
42     </tr>
43     <tr>
44     <th>Diskspace</th>
45     <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
46     </tr>
47     <tr>
48     <th>Swap space</th>
49     <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
50     </tr>
51     </table>
52 swift 1.1
53     </body>
54     </subsection>
55     </section>
56 swift 1.28 <!-- Copy/paste from the hb-install-x86-medium.xml file. -->
57 swift 1.24 <!-- START -->
58 swift 1.1 <section>
59 swift 1.24 <title>The Gentoo Installation Approaches</title>
60 swift 1.1 <subsection>
61     <title>Introduction</title>
62     <body>
63    
64     <p>
65 swift 1.24 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
66     A stage file is a tarball (compressed archive) that contains a minimal
67     environment.
68 swift 1.1 </p>
69    
70     <ul>
71 swift 1.24 <li>
72     A stage1 file contains nothing more than a compiler, Portage (Gentoo's
73     software management system) and a couple of packages on which the compiler
74     or Portage depends.
75     </li>
76     <li>
77     A stage2 file contains a so-called bootstrapped system, a minimal
78     environment from which one can start building all other necessary
79     applications that make a Gentoo environment complete.
80     </li>
81     <li>
82     A stage3 file contains a prebuilt minimal system which is almost fully
83     deployable. It only lacks a few applications where you, the Gentoo user,
84     needs to choose which one you want to install.
85     </li>
86 swift 1.1 </ul>
87    
88     <p>
89 swift 1.24 To help you decide what stage file you want to use, we have written down the
90     major advantages and disadvantages of each stage file.
91 swift 1.1 </p>
92    
93     </body>
94     </subsection>
95     <subsection>
96 swift 1.24 <title>A Stage1 Approach</title>
97 swift 1.1 <body>
98    
99     <p>
100 swift 1.24 A <e>stage1</e> is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire system
101     from scratch.
102 swift 1.1 </p>
103    
104     <p>
105 swift 1.24 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the
106 swift 1.1 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
107     initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
108     power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
109     installation method for those who would like to know more about the
110     inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
111     </p>
112    
113     <table>
114     <tr>
115     <th>Stage1</th>
116     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
117     </tr>
118     <tr>
119     <th>+</th>
120     <ti>
121     Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
122     build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
123     </ti>
124     </tr>
125     <tr>
126     <th>+</th>
127     <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
128     </tr>
129     <tr>
130     <th>+</th>
131     <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
132     </tr>
133     <tr>
134     <th>-</th>
135     <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
136     </tr>
137     <tr>
138     <th>-</th>
139     <ti>
140 swift 1.24 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is a waste of time
141 swift 1.7 </ti>
142     </tr>
143 swift 1.31 <tr>
144     <th>-</th>
145     <ti>
146     Requires a working Internet connection during the installation
147     </ti>
148     </tr>
149 swift 1.1 </table>
150    
151 swift 1.24 </body>
152     </subsection>
153     <subsection>
154     <title>A Stage2 Approach</title>
155     <body>
156    
157 swift 1.1 <p>
158 swift 1.24 A <e>stage2</e> is used for building the entire system from a bootstrapped
159     "semi-compiled" state.
160 swift 1.1 </p>
161    
162 swift 1.7 <p>
163 swift 1.24 Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process; doing this
164     is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
165     for your particular stage2 tarball.
166 swift 1.7 </p>
167    
168 swift 1.1 <table>
169     <tr>
170     <th>Stage2</th>
171     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
172     </tr>
173     <tr>
174     <th>+</th>
175     <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
176     </tr>
177     <tr>
178     <th>+</th>
179     <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
180     </tr>
181     <tr>
182     <th>+</th>
183     <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
184     </tr>
185     <tr>
186     <th>-</th>
187     <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
188     </tr>
189     <tr>
190     <th>-</th>
191 swift 1.24 <ti>It's still not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
192 swift 1.1 </tr>
193     <tr>
194     <th>-</th>
195     <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
196     </tr>
197 swift 1.31 <tr>
198     <th>-</th>
199     <ti>
200     Requires a working Internet connection during the installation
201     </ti>
202     </tr>
203 swift 1.1 </table>
204    
205 swift 1.24 </body>
206     </subsection>
207     <subsection>
208     <title>A Stage3 Approach</title>
209     <body>
210    
211     <p>
212     A <e>stage3</e> installation contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been
213     built for you. You will only need to build a few packages of which we can't
214     decide for you which one to choose.
215     </p>
216    
217 swift 1.1 <p>
218 swift 1.24 Choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
219 swift 1.1 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
220     settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
221     and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
222 swift 1.24 stability). Stage3 is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
223 swift 1.6 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
224 swift 1.1 </p>
225    
226     <table>
227     <tr>
228     <th>Stage3</th>
229     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
230     </tr>
231     <tr>
232     <th>+</th>
233     <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
234     </tr>
235     <tr>
236     <th>-</th>
237     <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
238     </tr>
239     </table>
240    
241     <p>
242 swift 1.24 You might be interested to know that, if you decide to use different
243     optimization settings after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to
244     recompile your entire system with the new optimization settings.
245 swift 1.1 </p>
246    
247 swift 1.24 </body>
248     </subsection>
249     </section>
250     <section>
251 swift 1.28 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
252 swift 1.24 <subsection>
253     <title>Introduction</title>
254     <body>
255    
256 swift 1.1 <p>
257 swift 1.28 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
258 swift 1.24 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
259     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
260     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
261     </p>
262    
263     <p>
264 swift 1.28 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
265 swift 1.24 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
266 swift 1.28 two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
267     as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
268     latest version of the available packages.
269 swift 1.24 </p>
270    
271     <p>
272 swift 1.26 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, please use
273 swift 1.24 the installation instructions described in the <uri
274 swift 1.28 link="2005.0/index.xml">Gentoo 2005.0 Handbooks</uri>.
275 swift 1.24 </p>
276    
277     <p>
278 swift 1.28 The two Installation CDs we currently provide are:
279     </p>
280    
281     <ul>
282     <li>
283     The Gentoo Minimal Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which
284     sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue
285     with the Gentoo installation.
286     </li>
287     <li>
288     The Gentoo Universal Installation CD, a bootable CD with the same abilities
289     as the Minimal Installation CD. Additionally, it contains a stage1 and
290     several stage3 tarballs (optimized for the individual subarchitectures).
291     </li>
292     </ul>
293    
294     <p>
295     To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
296     major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
297 swift 1.1 </p>
298    
299     </body>
300     </subsection>
301     <subsection>
302 swift 1.28 <title>Gentoo's Minimal Installation CD</title>
303 swift 1.1 <body>
304    
305     <p>
306 swift 1.28 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-minimal-2005.0.iso</c>
307     and takes up only 54 MB of diskspace. You can use this Installation CD to
308     install Gentoo, but always with a working Internet connection only.
309 swift 1.1 </p>
310    
311 swift 1.24 <table>
312     <tr>
313 swift 1.28 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
314 swift 1.24 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
315     </tr>
316     <tr>
317     <th>+</th>
318     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
319     </tr>
320     <tr>
321     <th>+</th>
322     <ti>
323     You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
324     net
325     </ti>
326     </tr>
327     <tr>
328     <th>-</th>
329     <ti>
330     Contains no stages, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and is
331     therefore not suitable for networkless installation
332     </ti>
333     </tr>
334     </table>
335 swift 1.1
336     </body>
337     </subsection>
338 swift 1.28 <subsection>
339     <title>Gentoo's Universal Installation CD</title>
340     <body>
341    
342     <p>
343 neysx 1.30 The Universal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-universal-2005.0.iso</c>
344 swift 1.28 and consumes the entire surface of a 650 MB CD. You can use this Installation CD
345     to install Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working
346     internet connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than
347     the one you are currently installing Gentoo on :)
348     </p>
349    
350     <table>
351     <tr>
352     <th>Universal Installation CD</th>
353     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
354     </tr>
355     <tr>
356     <ti>+</ti>
357     <ti>
358     Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
359     connection.
360     </ti>
361     </tr>
362     <tr>
363     <ti>-</ti>
364     <ti>
365     Huge download
366     </ti>
367     </tr>
368     </table>
369    
370     </body>
371     </subsection>
372     <subsection>
373     <title>Other CDs</title>
374     <body>
375    
376     <p>
377     You might find a so-called Package CD on one of our mirrors. This CD is no
378     Installation CD but an additional resource that can be exploited during a
379     networkless installation. It contains prebuilt packages (the so-called GRP set)
380     that allows you to easily and quickly install additional applications (such as
381     OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the networkless Gentoo
382     installation.
383     </p>
384    
385     </body>
386     </subsection>
387 swift 1.1 </section>
388 swift 1.24 <!-- STOP -->
389 swift 1.1 <section>
390 swift 1.28 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
391 swift 1.1 <subsection>
392 swift 1.28 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
393 swift 1.1 <body>
394    
395     <p>
396 swift 1.28 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
397     downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
398     the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
399 swift 1.1 </p>
400    
401     <p>
402 swift 1.28 You can download any of the Installation CDs (and, if you want to, a Packages
403     CD as well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
404     Installation CDs are located in the <path>releases/alpha/2005.0/installcd</path>
405     directory.
406 swift 1.24 </p>
407    
408     <p>
409     Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images
410     which you can write on a CD-R.
411 swift 1.1 </p>
412    
413     <p>
414     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
415     check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
416 swift 1.28 <path>install-alpha-minimal-2005.0.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5
417     checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
418 neysx 1.11 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
419 swift 1.1 </p>
420    
421     <p>
422 swift 1.8 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
423     verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
424     <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
425     </p>
426    
427     <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
428 swift 1.12 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058</i>
429 swift 1.8 </pre>
430    
431     <p>
432     Now verify the signature:
433     </p>
434    
435     <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
436 swift 1.12 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
437 swift 1.8 </pre>
438    
439     <p>
440 swift 1.1 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
441 swift 1.9 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
442     <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
443     link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
444 swift 1.1 </p>
445    
446     <ul>
447     <li>
448 swift 1.24 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
449     file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
450 swift 1.27 device path).
451 swift 1.1 </li>
452 swift 1.2 <li>
453 bennyc 1.5 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
454     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
455 swift 1.2 <c>Start</c>.
456     </li>
457 swift 1.1 </ul>
458    
459     </body>
460     </subsection>
461     <subsection>
462 swift 1.28 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
463 swift 1.1 <body>
464    
465     <p>
466     When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
467     firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
468     are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
469     Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
470     </p>
471    
472     <p>
473     SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
474 swift 1.28 operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARC
475 swift 1.1 is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
476 vapier 1.14 an operating environment for Windows NT. You can find a
477     <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/SRM-HOWTO/">detailed guide</uri> on
478     using SRM over at the Alpha Linux website.
479 swift 1.1 </p>
480    
481     <p>
482 vapier 1.29 If your Alpha system supports both SRM and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
483 swift 1.1 should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
484     instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
485     are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
486     will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
487     </p>
488    
489     <p>
490 swift 1.28 Now to boot an Alpha Installation CD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the
491     system. You can use SRM to boot the Installation CD. If you cannot do that, you
492     will have to use <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already,
493     use one of the precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
494 swift 1.1 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
495     </p>
496    
497     <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
498     <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
499     &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
500     dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
501     <comment>(...)</comment>
502     <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
503     &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
504     </pre>
505    
506     <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
507     <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
508 vapier 1.25 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo initrd=/boot/gentoo.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
509 swift 1.1 </pre>
510    
511     <p>
512     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
513     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
514     started on by pressing Alt-F1.
515     </p>
516    
517     <p>
518     Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
519     </p>
520    
521     </body>
522     </subsection>
523     <subsection id="hardware">
524     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
525     <body>
526    
527     <p>
528 swift 1.28 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
529 swift 1.1 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
530 swift 1.28 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may
531     not auto-load the kernel
532 swift 1.1 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
533     hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
534     </p>
535    
536     <p>
537     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
538     certain kinds of network interfaces):
539     </p>
540    
541     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
542     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
543     </pre>
544    
545     </body>
546     </subsection>
547     <subsection>
548     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
549     <body>
550    
551     <p>
552     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
553     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
554     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
555     more precise impression):
556     </p>
557    
558     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
559     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
560     </pre>
561    
562     <p>
563     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
564     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
565     disk):
566     </p>
567    
568     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
569     <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
570     <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
571     </pre>
572    
573     </body>
574     </subsection>
575 swift 1.13 <subsection id="useraccounts">
576 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
577     <body>
578    
579     <p>
580     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
581     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
582     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
583     the root password.
584     </p>
585    
586     <p>
587     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
588     </p>
589    
590     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
591     # <i>passwd</i>
592     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
593     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
594     </pre>
595    
596     <p>
597 swift 1.4 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
598 swift 1.1 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
599     In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
600     </p>
601    
602     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
603 swift 1.18 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
604 swift 1.1 # <i>passwd john</i>
605     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
606     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
607     </pre>
608    
609     <p>
610     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
611     <c>su</c>:
612     </p>
613    
614     <pre caption="Changing user id">
615 swift 1.15 # <i>su - john</i>
616 swift 1.1 </pre>
617    
618     </body>
619     </subsection>
620     <subsection>
621 swift 1.13 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
622     <body>
623    
624     <p>
625     If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
626     installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
627 neysx 1.19 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
628 swift 1.13 go to a new terminal and log in.
629     </p>
630    
631     <p>
632     If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
633 swift 1.16 <c>lynx</c> to read it:
634 swift 1.13 </p>
635    
636     <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
637 neysx 1.32 # <i>lynx /mnt/cdrom/docs/handbook/html/index.html</i>
638 swift 1.13 </pre>
639    
640     <p>
641     However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
642 swift 1.16 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>lynx</c>
643 swift 1.13 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
644     chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
645     document):
646     </p>
647    
648     <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
649 swift 1.16 # <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-alpha.xml</i>
650 swift 1.13 </pre>
651    
652     <p>
653     You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
654     </p>
655    
656     </body>
657     </subsection>
658     <subsection>
659 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
660     <body>
661    
662     <p>
663     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
664     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
665     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
666     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
667     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
668     </p>
669    
670     <p>
671     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
672     </p>
673    
674     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
675     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
676     </pre>
677    
678     <p>
679 swift 1.17 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
680 swift 1.1 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
681     </p>
682    
683     </body>
684     </subsection>
685     </section>
686     </sections>

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