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Handbook for 2006.0, "Chuck Norris can divide by zero"

1 swift 1.1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 jkt 1.39 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.1
7 fox2mike 1.40 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.17 2006/02/26 20:10:43 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.1
9     <sections>
10 swift 1.20
11 fox2mike 1.40 <version>2.11</version>
12     <date>2006-02-27</date>
13 swift 1.20
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16     <subsection>
17     <title>Introduction</title>
18     <body>
19    
20     <p>
21     Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 swift 1.24 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 swift 1.1 </p>
24    
25     </body>
26     </subsection>
27     <subsection>
28 swift 1.24 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 swift 1.1 <body>
30    
31 swift 1.24 <table>
32     <tr>
33     <th>CPU</th>
34     <ti>
35     Please check with the <uri
36     link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
37     </ti>
38     </tr>
39     <tr>
40     <th>Memory</th>
41     <ti>64 MB</ti>
42     </tr>
43     <tr>
44     <th>Diskspace</th>
45     <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
46     </tr>
47     <tr>
48     <th>Swap space</th>
49     <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
50     </tr>
51     </table>
52 swift 1.1
53     </body>
54     </subsection>
55     </section>
56 swift 1.37
57     <!-- Copy/paste from hb-install-x86-medium.xml -->
58 swift 1.24 <!-- START -->
59 swift 1.1 <section>
60 swift 1.28 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
61 swift 1.24 <subsection>
62     <title>Introduction</title>
63     <body>
64    
65 swift 1.1 <p>
66 swift 1.28 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
67 swift 1.24 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
68     During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
69     are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
70     </p>
71    
72     <p>
73 swift 1.28 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
74 swift 1.24 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
75 swift 1.28 two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
76     as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
77     latest version of the available packages.
78 swift 1.24 </p>
79    
80     <p>
81 swift 1.26 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, please use
82 swift 1.24 the installation instructions described in the <uri
83 fox2mike 1.40 link="2006.0/index.xml">Gentoo 2006.0 Handbooks</uri>.
84 swift 1.24 </p>
85    
86     <p>
87 swift 1.28 The two Installation CDs we currently provide are:
88     </p>
89    
90     <ul>
91     <li>
92     The Gentoo Minimal Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which
93     sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue
94     with the Gentoo installation.
95     </li>
96     <li>
97     The Gentoo Universal Installation CD, a bootable CD with the same abilities
98 swift 1.37 as the Minimal Installation CD. Additionally, it contains several stage3
99     tarballs (optimized for the individual subarchitectures).
100 swift 1.28 </li>
101     </ul>
102    
103     <p>
104     To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
105     major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
106 swift 1.1 </p>
107    
108     </body>
109     </subsection>
110     <subsection>
111 swift 1.28 <title>Gentoo's Minimal Installation CD</title>
112 swift 1.1 <body>
113    
114     <p>
115 fox2mike 1.40 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-minimal-2006.0.iso</c>
116     and takes up only 65 MB of diskspace. You can use this Installation CD to
117 swift 1.28 install Gentoo, but always with a working Internet connection only.
118 swift 1.1 </p>
119    
120 swift 1.24 <table>
121     <tr>
122 swift 1.28 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
123 swift 1.24 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
124     </tr>
125     <tr>
126     <th>+</th>
127     <ti>Smallest download</ti>
128     </tr>
129     <tr>
130     <th>-</th>
131     <ti>
132 swift 1.37 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and is
133 swift 1.24 therefore not suitable for networkless installation
134     </ti>
135     </tr>
136     </table>
137 swift 1.1
138     </body>
139     </subsection>
140 swift 1.28 <subsection>
141     <title>Gentoo's Universal Installation CD</title>
142     <body>
143    
144     <p>
145 fox2mike 1.40 The Universal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-universal-2006.0.iso</c>
146     and consumes about 316 MB on a CD. You can use this Installation CD to install
147     Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
148     connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
149     you are currently installing Gentoo on :)
150 swift 1.28 </p>
151    
152     <table>
153     <tr>
154     <th>Universal Installation CD</th>
155     <th>Pros and Cons</th>
156     </tr>
157     <tr>
158     <ti>+</ti>
159     <ti>
160     Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
161     connection.
162     </ti>
163     </tr>
164     <tr>
165     <ti>-</ti>
166     <ti>
167     Huge download
168     </ti>
169     </tr>
170     </table>
171    
172     </body>
173     </subsection>
174 fox2mike 1.40 <!-- No package CDs for Alpha - 2006.0
175 swift 1.28 <subsection>
176     <title>Other CDs</title>
177     <body>
178    
179     <p>
180 neysx 1.38 You might find a Package CD on one of our mirrors. This CD is not an
181 swift 1.28 Installation CD but an additional resource that can be exploited during a
182 neysx 1.38 networkless installation. It contains prebuilt packages (also known as the GRP
183     set) that allow you to easily and quickly install additional applications
184     (such as OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the networkless
185     Gentoo installation.
186 swift 1.28 </p>
187    
188 swift 1.36 <p>
189     If you intend to use the Packages CD to quickly install additional software,
190 swift 1.37 make sure that you use the same subarchitecture as the stage3 tarball you use.
191     </p>
192    
193     </body>
194 fox2mike 1.40 </subsection>-->
195 swift 1.37 <subsection>
196     <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
197     <body>
198    
199     <p>
200     A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment, suitable
201     to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this manual.
202     Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of three
203     stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
204     official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
205     performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
206     the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
207     Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
208 swift 1.36 </p>
209    
210 swift 1.28 </body>
211     </subsection>
212 swift 1.1 </section>
213 swift 1.24 <!-- STOP -->
214 swift 1.1 <section>
215 swift 1.28 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
216 swift 1.1 <subsection>
217 swift 1.28 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
218 swift 1.1 <body>
219    
220     <p>
221 swift 1.28 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
222     downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
223     the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
224 swift 1.1 </p>
225    
226     <p>
227 swift 1.28 You can download any of the Installation CDs (and, if you want to, a Packages
228     CD as well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
229 fox2mike 1.40 Installation CDs are located in the <path>releases/alpha/2006.0/installcd</path>
230 swift 1.28 directory.
231 swift 1.24 </p>
232    
233     <p>
234 neysx 1.38 Inside that directory you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which you
235     can write on a CD-R.
236 swift 1.1 </p>
237    
238     <p>
239     In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
240     check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
241 fox2mike 1.40 <path>install-alpha-minimal-2006.0.iso.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
242 swift 1.28 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
243 neysx 1.11 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
244 swift 1.1 </p>
245    
246     <p>
247 swift 1.8 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
248     verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
249     <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
250     </p>
251    
252     <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
253 jkt 1.39 $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
254 swift 1.8 </pre>
255    
256     <p>
257     Now verify the signature:
258     </p>
259    
260     <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
261 swift 1.12 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
262 swift 1.8 </pre>
263    
264     <p>
265 swift 1.1 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
266 swift 1.9 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
267     <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
268     link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
269 swift 1.1 </p>
270    
271     <ul>
272     <li>
273 swift 1.24 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
274     file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
275 swift 1.27 device path).
276 swift 1.1 </li>
277 swift 1.2 <li>
278 bennyc 1.5 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
279     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
280 swift 1.2 <c>Start</c>.
281     </li>
282 swift 1.1 </ul>
283    
284     </body>
285     </subsection>
286     <subsection>
287 swift 1.28 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
288 swift 1.1 <body>
289    
290     <p>
291     When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
292     firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
293     are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
294     Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
295     </p>
296    
297     <p>
298     SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
299 swift 1.28 operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARC
300 swift 1.1 is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
301 vapier 1.14 an operating environment for Windows NT. You can find a
302     <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/SRM-HOWTO/">detailed guide</uri> on
303     using SRM over at the Alpha Linux website.
304 swift 1.1 </p>
305    
306     <p>
307 vapier 1.29 If your Alpha system supports both SRM and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
308 swift 1.1 should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
309     instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
310     are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
311     will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
312     </p>
313    
314     <p>
315 swift 1.28 Now to boot an Alpha Installation CD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the
316     system. You can use SRM to boot the Installation CD. If you cannot do that, you
317     will have to use <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already,
318     use one of the precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
319 swift 1.1 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
320     </p>
321    
322     <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
323     <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
324     &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
325     dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
326     <comment>(...)</comment>
327     <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
328     &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
329 swift 1.33 <comment>To boot the 2.4 kernel instead of the default 2.6 kernel use:</comment>
330     &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb -flags 1</i>
331 swift 1.1 </pre>
332    
333     <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
334     <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
335 swift 1.33 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.6 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_6.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
336     <comment>To boot the 2.4 kernel instead of the default 2.6 kernel use:</comment>
337     MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.4 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_4.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
338 swift 1.1 </pre>
339    
340 fox2mike 1.40 <note>
341     The default Alpha profile uses nptl and requires a 2.6 kernel. If your system
342     cannot support nptl (or you do not want to use nptl), you should use the 2.4
343     kernel. Alternatively, if you prefer to compile your system without nptl, you
344     will be given the chance to select a stage built without nptl in <uri
345     link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing a Stage Tarball</uri>.
346     </note>
347    
348 swift 1.1 <p>
349     You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
350     to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
351     started on by pressing Alt-F1.
352     </p>
353    
354     <p>
355     Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
356     </p>
357    
358     </body>
359     </subsection>
360     <subsection id="hardware">
361     <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
362     <body>
363    
364     <p>
365 swift 1.28 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
366 swift 1.1 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
367 swift 1.28 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may
368     not auto-load the kernel
369 swift 1.1 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
370     hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
371     </p>
372    
373     <p>
374     In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
375     certain kinds of network interfaces):
376     </p>
377    
378     <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
379     # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
380     </pre>
381    
382     </body>
383     </subsection>
384     <subsection>
385     <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
386     <body>
387    
388     <p>
389     If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
390     performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
391     test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
392     more precise impression):
393     </p>
394    
395     <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
396     # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
397     </pre>
398    
399     <p>
400     To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
401     yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
402     disk):
403     </p>
404    
405     <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
406     <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
407     <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
408     </pre>
409    
410     </body>
411     </subsection>
412 swift 1.13 <subsection id="useraccounts">
413 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
414     <body>
415    
416     <p>
417     If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
418     environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
419     security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
420     the root password.
421     </p>
422    
423     <p>
424     To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
425     </p>
426    
427     <pre caption="Changing the root password">
428     # <i>passwd</i>
429     New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
430     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
431     </pre>
432    
433     <p>
434 swift 1.4 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
435 swift 1.1 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
436     In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
437     </p>
438    
439     <pre caption="Creating a user account">
440 swift 1.18 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
441 swift 1.1 # <i>passwd john</i>
442     New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
443     Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
444     </pre>
445    
446     <p>
447     You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
448     <c>su</c>:
449     </p>
450    
451     <pre caption="Changing user id">
452 swift 1.15 # <i>su - john</i>
453 swift 1.1 </pre>
454    
455     </body>
456     </subsection>
457     <subsection>
458 swift 1.13 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
459     <body>
460    
461     <p>
462     If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
463     installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
464 neysx 1.19 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
465 swift 1.13 go to a new terminal and log in.
466     </p>
467    
468     <p>
469     If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
470 swift 1.16 <c>lynx</c> to read it:
471 swift 1.13 </p>
472    
473     <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
474 neysx 1.35 # <i>lynx /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
475 swift 1.13 </pre>
476    
477     <p>
478     However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
479 swift 1.16 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>lynx</c>
480 swift 1.13 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
481     chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
482     document):
483     </p>
484    
485     <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
486 swift 1.16 # <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-alpha.xml</i>
487 swift 1.13 </pre>
488    
489     <p>
490     You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
491     </p>
492    
493     </body>
494     </subsection>
495     <subsection>
496 swift 1.1 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
497     <body>
498    
499     <p>
500     If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
501     Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
502     install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
503     account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
504     (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
505     </p>
506    
507     <p>
508     To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
509     </p>
510    
511     <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
512     # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
513     </pre>
514    
515     <p>
516 swift 1.17 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
517 swift 1.1 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
518     </p>
519    
520     </body>
521     </subsection>
522     </section>
523     </sections>

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