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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.16 2004/10/20 08:55:31 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Introduction</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
18 successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
19 architecture.
20 </p>
21
22 </body>
23 </subsection>
24 <subsection>
25 <title>The Alpha Architecture</title>
26 <body>
27
28 <p>
29 Check the following requirements before you
30 continue with the Gentoo installation:
31 </p>
32
33 <ul>
34 <li>
35 You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
36 </li>
37 <li>
38 For the <e>Alpha architecture</e>, you should check with the <uri
39 link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
40 </li>
41 </ul>
42
43 </body>
44 </subsection>
45 </section>
46 <section>
47 <title>Make your Choice</title>
48 <subsection>
49 <title>Introduction</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <p>
53 Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
54 choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
55 choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
56 Gentoo base system.
57 </p>
58
59 <p>
60 The installation media we will describe are:
61 </p>
62
63 <ul>
64 <li>The Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</li>
65 </ul>
66
67 <p>
68 Before we continue, let's explain our three-stage installation.
69 </p>
70
71 </body>
72 </subsection>
73 <subsection>
74 <title>The Three Stages</title>
75 <body>
76
77 <p>
78 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
79 The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
80 yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
81 build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
82 building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
83 The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
84 been built for you.
85 </p>
86
87 <p>
88 Now what stage do you have to choose?
89 </p>
90
91 <p>
92 Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
93 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
94 initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
95 power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
96 installation method for those who would like to know more about the
97 inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
98 </p>
99
100 <p>
101 A <e>stage1</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
102 Internet connection.
103 </p>
104
105 <table>
106 <tr>
107 <th>Stage1</th>
108 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
109 </tr>
110 <tr>
111 <th>+</th>
112 <ti>
113 Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
114 build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
115 </ti>
116 </tr>
117 <tr>
118 <th>+</th>
119 <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
120 </tr>
121 <tr>
122 <th>+</th>
123 <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
124 </tr>
125 <tr>
126 <th>-</th>
127 <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
128 </tr>
129 <tr>
130 <th>-</th>
131 <ti>
132 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
133 </ti>
134 </tr>
135 <tr>
136 <th>-</th>
137 <ti>
138 Not suitable for networkless installations
139 </ti>
140 </tr>
141 </table>
142
143 <p>
144 <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
145 is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
146 for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
147 </p>
148
149 <p>
150 A <e>stage2</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
151 Internet connection.
152 </p>
153
154 <table>
155 <tr>
156 <th>Stage2</th>
157 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
158 </tr>
159 <tr>
160 <th>+</th>
161 <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
162 </tr>
163 <tr>
164 <th>+</th>
165 <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
166 </tr>
167 <tr>
168 <th>+</th>
169 <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
170 </tr>
171 <tr>
172 <th>-</th>
173 <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
174 </tr>
175 <tr>
176 <th>-</th>
177 <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
178 </tr>
179 <tr>
180 <th>-</th>
181 <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
182 </tr>
183 <tr>
184 <th>-</th>
185 <ti>
186 Not suitable for networkless installations
187 </ti>
188 </tr>
189 </table>
190
191 <p>
192 Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
193 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
194 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
195 and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
196 stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
197 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
198 </p>
199
200 <table>
201 <tr>
202 <th>Stage3</th>
203 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
204 </tr>
205 <tr>
206 <th>+</th>
207 <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
208 </tr>
209 <tr>
210 <th>+</th>
211 <ti>Suitable for networkless installations</ti>
212 </tr>
213 <tr>
214 <th>-</th>
215 <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
216 </tr>
217 <tr>
218 <th>-</th>
219 <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
220 </tr>
221 </table>
222
223 <p>
224 Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
225 you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
226 be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
227 after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
228 with the new optimization settings.
229 </p>
230
231 <p>
232 Now take a look at the available installation media.
233 </p>
234
235 </body>
236 </subsection>
237 <subsection>
238 <title>The Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</title>
239 <body>
240
241 <p>
242 The <e>Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</e> is a bootable CD which contain a
243 self-sustained Gentoo environment. It allows you to boot Linux from the CD.
244 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
245 are loaded. It is maintained by Gentoo developers.
246 </p>
247
248 <p>
249 The <e>Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</e> is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole
250 purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue with the
251 Gentoo installation. It does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a
252 single stage1 file), source code or precompiled packages. For example the
253 alpha variant of this LiveCD can be found in the
254 <path>releases/1.4_rc1/alpha</path> subdirectory and is called
255 <c>gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2</c>.
256 </p>
257
258 </body>
259 </subsection>
260 </section>
261 <section>
262 <title>Download, Burn and Boot the Gentoo LiveCD</title>
263 <subsection>
264 <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
265 <body>
266
267 <p>
268 You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
269 wrong document). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
270 LiveCD.
271 </p>
272
273 <p>
274 Visit one of our <uri
275 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
276 <path>releases/1.4rc1/alpha</path> which is where the LiveCD(s) of your choice
277 are located. Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are
278 full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.
279 </p>
280
281 <p>
282 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
283 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
284 <path>gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2.md5sum</path>). You can check the MD5
285 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
286 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
287 </p>
288
289 <p>
290 Once downloaded, decompress the ISO file (as it is stored in a compressed format
291 using the Burrows-Wheeler text compression algorithm) using <c>bunzip2</c> (on
292 Unix/Linux systems):
293 </p>
294
295 <pre caption="Decompressing the iso.bz2 file">
296 # <i>bunzip2 gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2</i>
297 </pre>
298
299 <p>
300 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
301 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
302 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
303 </p>
304
305 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
306 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058</i>
307 </pre>
308
309 <p>
310 Now verify the signature:
311 </p>
312
313 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
314 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
315 </pre>
316
317 <p>
318 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
319 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
320 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
321 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
322 </p>
323
324 <ul>
325 <li>
326 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
327 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
328 by the path to the ISO file :)
329 </li>
330 <li>
331 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
332 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
333 <c>Start</c>.
334 </li>
335 </ul>
336
337 </body>
338 </subsection>
339 <subsection>
340 <title>Booting the Alpha LiveCD(s)</title>
341 <body>
342
343 <p>
344 When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
345 firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
346 are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
347 Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
348 </p>
349
350 <p>
351 SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
352 operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARM
353 is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
354 an operating environment for Windows NT. You can find a
355 <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/SRM-HOWTO/">detailed guide</uri> on
356 using SRM over at the Alpha Linux website.
357 </p>
358
359 <p>
360 If your Alpha system supports both SRC and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
361 should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
362 instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
363 are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
364 will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
365 </p>
366
367 <p>
368 Now to boot an Alpha LiveCD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the system.
369 You can use SRM to boot the LiveCD. If you cannot do that, you will have to use
370 <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already, use one of the
371 precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
372 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
373 </p>
374
375 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
376 <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
377 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
378 dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
379 <comment>(...)</comment>
380 <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
381 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
382 </pre>
383
384 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
385 <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
386 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:boot/vmlinuz initrd=initrd.img root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc</i>
387 </pre>
388
389 <p>
390 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
391 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
392 started on by pressing Alt-F1.
393 </p>
394
395 <p>
396 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
397 </p>
398
399 </body>
400 </subsection>
401 <subsection id="hardware">
402 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
403 <body>
404
405 <p>
406 When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
407 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
408 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
409 SPARC LiveCDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
410 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
411 hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
412 </p>
413
414 <p>
415 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
416 certain kinds of network interfaces):
417 </p>
418
419 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
420 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
421 </pre>
422
423 </body>
424 </subsection>
425 <subsection>
426 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
427 <body>
428
429 <p>
430 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
431 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
432 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
433 more precise impression):
434 </p>
435
436 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
437 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
438 </pre>
439
440 <p>
441 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
442 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
443 disk):
444 </p>
445
446 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
447 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
448 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
449 </pre>
450
451 </body>
452 </subsection>
453 <subsection id="useraccounts">
454 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
455 <body>
456
457 <p>
458 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
459 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
460 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
461 the root password.
462 </p>
463
464 <p>
465 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
466 </p>
467
468 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
469 # <i>passwd</i>
470 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
471 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
472 </pre>
473
474 <p>
475 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
476 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
477 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
478 </p>
479
480 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
481 # <i>useradd john</i>
482 # <i>passwd john</i>
483 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
484 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
485 </pre>
486
487 <p>
488 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
489 <c>su</c>:
490 </p>
491
492 <pre caption="Changing user id">
493 # <i>su - john</i>
494 </pre>
495
496 </body>
497 </subsection>
498 <subsection>
499 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
500 <body>
501
502 <p>
503 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
504 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
505 link="#useraccouts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
506 go to a new terminal and log in.
507 </p>
508
509 <p>
510 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
511 <c>lynx</c> to read it:
512 </p>
513
514 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
515 # <i>lynx /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
516 </pre>
517
518 <p>
519 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
520 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>lynx</c>
521 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
522 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
523 document):
524 </p>
525
526 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
527 # <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-alpha.xml</i>
528 </pre>
529
530 <p>
531 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
532 </p>
533
534 </body>
535 </subsection>
536 <subsection>
537 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
538 <body>
539
540 <p>
541 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
542 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
543 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
544 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
545 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
546 </p>
547
548 <p>
549 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
550 </p>
551
552 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
553 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
554 </pre>
555
556 <p>
557 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
558 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
559 </p>
560
561 </body>
562 </subsection>
563 </section>
564 </sections>

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