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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.19 2004/11/04 21:28:44 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.19</version>
12 <date>November 4, 2004</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
23 architecture.
24 </p>
25
26 </body>
27 </subsection>
28 <subsection>
29 <title>The Alpha Architecture</title>
30 <body>
31
32 <p>
33 Check the following requirements before you
34 continue with the Gentoo installation:
35 </p>
36
37 <ul>
38 <li>
39 You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
40 </li>
41 <li>
42 For the <e>Alpha architecture</e>, you should check with the <uri
43 link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
44 </li>
45 </ul>
46
47 </body>
48 </subsection>
49 </section>
50 <section>
51 <title>Make your Choice</title>
52 <subsection>
53 <title>Introduction</title>
54 <body>
55
56 <p>
57 Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
58 choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
59 choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
60 Gentoo base system.
61 </p>
62
63 <p>
64 The installation media we will describe are:
65 </p>
66
67 <ul>
68 <li>The Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</li>
69 </ul>
70
71 <p>
72 Before we continue, let's explain our three-stage installation.
73 </p>
74
75 </body>
76 </subsection>
77 <subsection>
78 <title>The Three Stages</title>
79 <body>
80
81 <p>
82 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
83 The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
84 yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
85 build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
86 building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
87 The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
88 been built for you.
89 </p>
90
91 <p>
92 Now what stage do you have to choose?
93 </p>
94
95 <p>
96 Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
97 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
98 initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
99 power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
100 installation method for those who would like to know more about the
101 inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 A <e>stage1</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
106 Internet connection.
107 </p>
108
109 <table>
110 <tr>
111 <th>Stage1</th>
112 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
113 </tr>
114 <tr>
115 <th>+</th>
116 <ti>
117 Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
118 build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
119 </ti>
120 </tr>
121 <tr>
122 <th>+</th>
123 <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
124 </tr>
125 <tr>
126 <th>+</th>
127 <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
128 </tr>
129 <tr>
130 <th>-</th>
131 <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
132 </tr>
133 <tr>
134 <th>-</th>
135 <ti>
136 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
137 </ti>
138 </tr>
139 <tr>
140 <th>-</th>
141 <ti>
142 Not suitable for networkless installations
143 </ti>
144 </tr>
145 </table>
146
147 <p>
148 <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
149 is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
150 for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
151 </p>
152
153 <p>
154 A <e>stage2</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
155 Internet connection.
156 </p>
157
158 <table>
159 <tr>
160 <th>Stage2</th>
161 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
162 </tr>
163 <tr>
164 <th>+</th>
165 <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
166 </tr>
167 <tr>
168 <th>+</th>
169 <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
170 </tr>
171 <tr>
172 <th>+</th>
173 <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
174 </tr>
175 <tr>
176 <th>-</th>
177 <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
178 </tr>
179 <tr>
180 <th>-</th>
181 <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
182 </tr>
183 <tr>
184 <th>-</th>
185 <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
186 </tr>
187 <tr>
188 <th>-</th>
189 <ti>
190 Not suitable for networkless installations
191 </ti>
192 </tr>
193 </table>
194
195 <p>
196 Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
197 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
198 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
199 and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
200 stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
201 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
202 </p>
203
204 <table>
205 <tr>
206 <th>Stage3</th>
207 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
208 </tr>
209 <tr>
210 <th>+</th>
211 <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
212 </tr>
213 <tr>
214 <th>+</th>
215 <ti>Suitable for networkless installations</ti>
216 </tr>
217 <tr>
218 <th>-</th>
219 <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
220 </tr>
221 <tr>
222 <th>-</th>
223 <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
224 </tr>
225 </table>
226
227 <p>
228 Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
229 you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
230 be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
231 after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
232 with the new optimization settings.
233 </p>
234
235 <p>
236 Now take a look at the available installation media.
237 </p>
238
239 </body>
240 </subsection>
241 <subsection>
242 <title>The Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</title>
243 <body>
244
245 <p>
246 The <e>Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</e> is a bootable CD which contain a
247 self-sustained Gentoo environment. It allows you to boot Linux from the CD.
248 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
249 are loaded. It is maintained by Gentoo developers.
250 </p>
251
252 <p>
253 The <e>Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</e> is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole
254 purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue with the
255 Gentoo installation. It does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a
256 single stage1 file), source code or precompiled packages. For example the
257 alpha variant of this LiveCD can be found in the
258 <path>releases/1.4_rc1/alpha</path> subdirectory and is called
259 <c>gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2</c>.
260 </p>
261
262 </body>
263 </subsection>
264 </section>
265 <section>
266 <title>Download, Burn and Boot the Gentoo LiveCD</title>
267 <subsection>
268 <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
269 <body>
270
271 <p>
272 You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
273 wrong document). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
274 LiveCD.
275 </p>
276
277 <p>
278 Visit one of our <uri
279 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
280 <path>releases/1.4rc1/alpha</path> which is where the LiveCD(s) of your choice
281 are located. Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are
282 full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.
283 </p>
284
285 <p>
286 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
287 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
288 <path>gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2.md5sum</path>). You can check the MD5
289 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
290 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
291 </p>
292
293 <p>
294 Once downloaded, decompress the ISO file (as it is stored in a compressed format
295 using the Burrows-Wheeler text compression algorithm) using <c>bunzip2</c> (on
296 Unix/Linux systems):
297 </p>
298
299 <pre caption="Decompressing the iso.bz2 file">
300 # <i>bunzip2 gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2</i>
301 </pre>
302
303 <p>
304 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
305 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
306 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
307 </p>
308
309 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
310 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058</i>
311 </pre>
312
313 <p>
314 Now verify the signature:
315 </p>
316
317 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
318 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
319 </pre>
320
321 <p>
322 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
323 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
324 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
325 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
326 </p>
327
328 <ul>
329 <li>
330 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
331 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
332 by the path to the ISO file :)
333 </li>
334 <li>
335 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
336 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
337 <c>Start</c>.
338 </li>
339 </ul>
340
341 </body>
342 </subsection>
343 <subsection>
344 <title>Booting the Alpha LiveCD(s)</title>
345 <body>
346
347 <p>
348 When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
349 firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
350 are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
351 Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
352 </p>
353
354 <p>
355 SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
356 operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARM
357 is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
358 an operating environment for Windows NT. You can find a
359 <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/SRM-HOWTO/">detailed guide</uri> on
360 using SRM over at the Alpha Linux website.
361 </p>
362
363 <p>
364 If your Alpha system supports both SRC and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
365 should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
366 instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
367 are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
368 will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
369 </p>
370
371 <p>
372 Now to boot an Alpha LiveCD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the system.
373 You can use SRM to boot the LiveCD. If you cannot do that, you will have to use
374 <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already, use one of the
375 precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
376 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
377 </p>
378
379 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
380 <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
381 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
382 dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
383 <comment>(...)</comment>
384 <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
385 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
386 </pre>
387
388 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
389 <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
390 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:boot/vmlinuz initrd=initrd.img root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc</i>
391 </pre>
392
393 <p>
394 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
395 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
396 started on by pressing Alt-F1.
397 </p>
398
399 <p>
400 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
401 </p>
402
403 </body>
404 </subsection>
405 <subsection id="hardware">
406 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
407 <body>
408
409 <p>
410 When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
411 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
412 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
413 SPARC LiveCDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
414 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
415 hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
416 </p>
417
418 <p>
419 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
420 certain kinds of network interfaces):
421 </p>
422
423 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
424 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
425 </pre>
426
427 </body>
428 </subsection>
429 <subsection>
430 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
431 <body>
432
433 <p>
434 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
435 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
436 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
437 more precise impression):
438 </p>
439
440 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
441 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
442 </pre>
443
444 <p>
445 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
446 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
447 disk):
448 </p>
449
450 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
451 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
452 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
453 </pre>
454
455 </body>
456 </subsection>
457 <subsection id="useraccounts">
458 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
459 <body>
460
461 <p>
462 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
463 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
464 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
465 the root password.
466 </p>
467
468 <p>
469 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
470 </p>
471
472 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
473 # <i>passwd</i>
474 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
475 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
476 </pre>
477
478 <p>
479 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
480 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
481 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
482 </p>
483
484 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
485 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
486 # <i>passwd john</i>
487 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
488 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
489 </pre>
490
491 <p>
492 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
493 <c>su</c>:
494 </p>
495
496 <pre caption="Changing user id">
497 # <i>su - john</i>
498 </pre>
499
500 </body>
501 </subsection>
502 <subsection>
503 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
504 <body>
505
506 <p>
507 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
508 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
509 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
510 go to a new terminal and log in.
511 </p>
512
513 <p>
514 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
515 <c>lynx</c> to read it:
516 </p>
517
518 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
519 # <i>lynx /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
520 </pre>
521
522 <p>
523 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
524 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>lynx</c>
525 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
526 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
527 document):
528 </p>
529
530 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
531 # <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-alpha.xml</i>
532 </pre>
533
534 <p>
535 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
536 </p>
537
538 </body>
539 </subsection>
540 <subsection>
541 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
542 <body>
543
544 <p>
545 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
546 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
547 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
548 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
549 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
550 </p>
551
552 <p>
553 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
554 </p>
555
556 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
557 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
558 </pre>
559
560 <p>
561 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
562 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
563 </p>
564
565 </body>
566 </subsection>
567 </section>
568 </sections>

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