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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.26 2005/02/14 15:51:45 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>1.22</version>
12 <date>2005-02-14</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 </p>
24
25 </body>
26 </subsection>
27 <subsection>
28 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 <body>
30
31 <table>
32 <tr>
33 <th>CPU</th>
34 <ti>
35 Please check with the <uri
36 link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
37 </ti>
38 </tr>
39 <tr>
40 <th>Memory</th>
41 <ti>64 MB</ti>
42 </tr>
43 <tr>
44 <th>Diskspace</th>
45 <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
46 </tr>
47 <tr>
48 <th>Swap space</th>
49 <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
50 </tr>
51 </table>
52
53 </body>
54 </subsection>
55 </section>
56 <!-- Copy/paste from the hb-install-x86-medium.xml file but no Universal LiveCD.
57 Also s/x86/alpha -->
58 <!-- START -->
59 <section>
60 <title>The Gentoo Installation Approaches</title>
61 <subsection>
62 <title>Introduction</title>
63 <body>
64
65 <p>
66 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
67 A stage file is a tarball (compressed archive) that contains a minimal
68 environment.
69 </p>
70
71 <ul>
72 <li>
73 A stage1 file contains nothing more than a compiler, Portage (Gentoo's
74 software management system) and a couple of packages on which the compiler
75 or Portage depends.
76 </li>
77 <li>
78 A stage2 file contains a so-called bootstrapped system, a minimal
79 environment from which one can start building all other necessary
80 applications that make a Gentoo environment complete.
81 </li>
82 <li>
83 A stage3 file contains a prebuilt minimal system which is almost fully
84 deployable. It only lacks a few applications where you, the Gentoo user,
85 needs to choose which one you want to install.
86 </li>
87 </ul>
88
89 <p>
90 To help you decide what stage file you want to use, we have written down the
91 major advantages and disadvantages of each stage file.
92 </p>
93
94 </body>
95 </subsection>
96 <subsection>
97 <title>A Stage1 Approach</title>
98 <body>
99
100 <p>
101 A <e>stage1</e> is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire system
102 from scratch.
103 </p>
104
105 <p>
106 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the
107 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
108 initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
109 power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
110 installation method for those who would like to know more about the
111 inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
112 </p>
113
114 <table>
115 <tr>
116 <th>Stage1</th>
117 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
118 </tr>
119 <tr>
120 <th>+</th>
121 <ti>
122 Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
123 build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
124 </ti>
125 </tr>
126 <tr>
127 <th>+</th>
128 <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
129 </tr>
130 <tr>
131 <th>+</th>
132 <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
133 </tr>
134 <tr>
135 <th>-</th>
136 <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
137 </tr>
138 <tr>
139 <th>-</th>
140 <ti>
141 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is a waste of time
142 </ti>
143 </tr>
144 </table>
145
146 </body>
147 </subsection>
148 <subsection>
149 <title>A Stage2 Approach</title>
150 <body>
151
152 <p>
153 A <e>stage2</e> is used for building the entire system from a bootstrapped
154 "semi-compiled" state.
155 </p>
156
157 <p>
158 Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process; doing this
159 is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
160 for your particular stage2 tarball.
161 </p>
162
163 <table>
164 <tr>
165 <th>Stage2</th>
166 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
167 </tr>
168 <tr>
169 <th>+</th>
170 <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
171 </tr>
172 <tr>
173 <th>+</th>
174 <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
175 </tr>
176 <tr>
177 <th>+</th>
178 <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
179 </tr>
180 <tr>
181 <th>-</th>
182 <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
183 </tr>
184 <tr>
185 <th>-</th>
186 <ti>It's still not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
187 </tr>
188 <tr>
189 <th>-</th>
190 <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
191 </tr>
192 </table>
193
194 </body>
195 </subsection>
196 <subsection>
197 <title>A Stage3 Approach</title>
198 <body>
199
200 <p>
201 A <e>stage3</e> installation contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been
202 built for you. You will only need to build a few packages of which we can't
203 decide for you which one to choose.
204 </p>
205
206 <p>
207 Choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
208 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
209 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
210 and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
211 stability). Stage3 is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
212 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
213 </p>
214
215 <table>
216 <tr>
217 <th>Stage3</th>
218 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
219 </tr>
220 <tr>
221 <th>+</th>
222 <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
223 </tr>
224 <tr>
225 <th>-</th>
226 <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
227 </tr>
228 </table>
229
230 <p>
231 You might be interested to know that, if you decide to use different
232 optimization settings after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to
233 recompile your entire system with the new optimization settings.
234 </p>
235
236 </body>
237 </subsection>
238 </section>
239 <section>
240 <title>The Gentoo LiveCDs</title>
241 <subsection>
242 <title>Introduction</title>
243 <body>
244
245 <p>
246 The <e>Gentoo LiveCDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
247 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
248 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
249 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
250 </p>
251
252 <p>
253 All LiveCDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
254 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
255 two LiveCDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long as you're
256 planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the latest version
257 of the available packages.
258 </p>
259
260 <p>
261 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, please use
262 the installation instructions described in the <uri
263 link="2004.3/index.xml">Gentoo 2004.3 Handbooks</uri>. This is currently not
264 supported for the Alpha architecture though.
265 </p>
266
267 <p>
268 For the Alpha architecture, we only provide a <e>Minimal</e> LiveCD,
269 a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole purpose is to boot the
270 system, prepare the networking and continue with the Gentoo installation.
271 </p>
272
273 </body>
274 </subsection>
275 <subsection>
276 <title>Gentoo's Minimal LiveCD</title>
277 <body>
278
279 <p>
280 The Minimal LiveCD is called <c>install-alpha-minimal-2004.3-r1.iso</c> and
281 takes up only 54 MB of diskspace. You can use this LiveCD to install Gentoo,
282 but always with a working Internet connection only.
283 </p>
284
285 <table>
286 <tr>
287 <th>Minimal LiveCD</th>
288 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
289 </tr>
290 <tr>
291 <th>+</th>
292 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
293 </tr>
294 <tr>
295 <th>+</th>
296 <ti>
297 You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
298 net
299 </ti>
300 </tr>
301 <tr>
302 <th>-</th>
303 <ti>
304 Contains no stages, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and is
305 therefore not suitable for networkless installation
306 </ti>
307 </tr>
308 </table>
309
310 </body>
311 </subsection>
312 </section>
313 <!-- STOP -->
314 <section>
315 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo LiveCD</title>
316 <subsection>
317 <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
318 <body>
319
320 <p>
321 You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD. We'll first start by downloading and
322 burning the chosen LiveCD. We previously discussed the several available
323 LiveCDs, but where can you find them?
324 </p>
325
326 <p>
327 You can download any of the LiveCDs (and, if you want to, a Packages CD as
328 well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
329 LiveCDs are located in the <path>releases/alpha/2004.3/livecd</path> directory.
330 </p>
331
332 <p>
333 Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images
334 which you can write on a CD-R.
335 </p>
336
337 <p>
338 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
339 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
340 <path>install-alpha-minimal-2004.3.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5 checksum
341 with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
342 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
343 </p>
344
345 <p>
346 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
347 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
348 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
349 </p>
350
351 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
352 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058</i>
353 </pre>
354
355 <p>
356 Now verify the signature:
357 </p>
358
359 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
360 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
361 </pre>
362
363 <p>
364 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
365 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
366 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
367 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
368 </p>
369
370 <ul>
371 <li>
372 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
373 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
374 device path).
375 </li>
376 <li>
377 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
378 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
379 <c>Start</c>.
380 </li>
381 </ul>
382
383 </body>
384 </subsection>
385 <subsection>
386 <title>Booting the LiveCD</title>
387 <body>
388
389 <p>
390 When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
391 firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
392 are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
393 Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
394 </p>
395
396 <p>
397 SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
398 operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARM
399 is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
400 an operating environment for Windows NT. You can find a
401 <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/SRM-HOWTO/">detailed guide</uri> on
402 using SRM over at the Alpha Linux website.
403 </p>
404
405 <p>
406 If your Alpha system supports both SRC and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
407 should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
408 instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
409 are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
410 will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
411 </p>
412
413 <p>
414 Now to boot an Alpha LiveCD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the system.
415 You can use SRM to boot the LiveCD. If you cannot do that, you will have to use
416 <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already, use one of the
417 precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
418 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
419 </p>
420
421 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
422 <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
423 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
424 dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
425 <comment>(...)</comment>
426 <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
427 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
428 </pre>
429
430 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
431 <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
432 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo initrd=/boot/gentoo.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
433 </pre>
434
435 <p>
436 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
437 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
438 started on by pressing Alt-F1.
439 </p>
440
441 <p>
442 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
443 </p>
444
445 </body>
446 </subsection>
447 <subsection id="hardware">
448 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
449 <body>
450
451 <p>
452 When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
453 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
454 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
455 SPARC LiveCDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
456 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
457 hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
458 </p>
459
460 <p>
461 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
462 certain kinds of network interfaces):
463 </p>
464
465 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
466 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
467 </pre>
468
469 </body>
470 </subsection>
471 <subsection>
472 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
473 <body>
474
475 <p>
476 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
477 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
478 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
479 more precise impression):
480 </p>
481
482 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
483 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
484 </pre>
485
486 <p>
487 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
488 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
489 disk):
490 </p>
491
492 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
493 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
494 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
495 </pre>
496
497 </body>
498 </subsection>
499 <subsection id="useraccounts">
500 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
501 <body>
502
503 <p>
504 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
505 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
506 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
507 the root password.
508 </p>
509
510 <p>
511 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
512 </p>
513
514 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
515 # <i>passwd</i>
516 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
517 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
518 </pre>
519
520 <p>
521 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
522 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
523 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
524 </p>
525
526 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
527 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
528 # <i>passwd john</i>
529 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
530 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
531 </pre>
532
533 <p>
534 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
535 <c>su</c>:
536 </p>
537
538 <pre caption="Changing user id">
539 # <i>su - john</i>
540 </pre>
541
542 </body>
543 </subsection>
544 <subsection>
545 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
546 <body>
547
548 <p>
549 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
550 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
551 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
552 go to a new terminal and log in.
553 </p>
554
555 <p>
556 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
557 <c>lynx</c> to read it:
558 </p>
559
560 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
561 # <i>lynx /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
562 </pre>
563
564 <p>
565 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
566 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>lynx</c>
567 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
568 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
569 document):
570 </p>
571
572 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
573 # <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-alpha.xml</i>
574 </pre>
575
576 <p>
577 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
578 </p>
579
580 </body>
581 </subsection>
582 <subsection>
583 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
584 <body>
585
586 <p>
587 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
588 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
589 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
590 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
591 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
592 </p>
593
594 <p>
595 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
596 </p>
597
598 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
599 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
600 </pre>
601
602 <p>
603 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
604 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
605 </p>
606
607 </body>
608 </subsection>
609 </section>
610 </sections>

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