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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.35 2005/08/25 19:53:25 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.8</version>
12 <date>2005-10-09</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 </p>
24
25 </body>
26 </subsection>
27 <subsection>
28 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 <body>
30
31 <table>
32 <tr>
33 <th>CPU</th>
34 <ti>
35 Please check with the <uri
36 link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
37 </ti>
38 </tr>
39 <tr>
40 <th>Memory</th>
41 <ti>64 MB</ti>
42 </tr>
43 <tr>
44 <th>Diskspace</th>
45 <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
46 </tr>
47 <tr>
48 <th>Swap space</th>
49 <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
50 </tr>
51 </table>
52
53 </body>
54 </subsection>
55 </section>
56 <!-- Copy/paste from the hb-install-x86-medium.xml file. -->
57 <!-- START -->
58 <section>
59 <title>The Gentoo Installation Approaches</title>
60 <subsection>
61 <title>Introduction</title>
62 <body>
63
64 <p>
65 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
66 A stage file is a tarball (compressed archive) that contains a minimal
67 environment.
68 </p>
69
70 <ul>
71 <li>
72 A stage1 file contains nothing more than a compiler, Portage (Gentoo's
73 software management system) and a couple of packages on which the compiler
74 or Portage depends.
75 </li>
76 <li>
77 A stage2 file contains a so-called bootstrapped system, a minimal
78 environment from which one can start building all other necessary
79 applications that make a Gentoo environment complete.
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 A stage3 file contains a prebuilt minimal system which is almost fully
83 deployable. It only lacks a few applications where you, the Gentoo user,
84 needs to choose which one you want to install.
85 </li>
86 </ul>
87
88 <p>
89 To help you decide what stage file you want to use, we have written down the
90 major advantages and disadvantages of each stage file.
91 </p>
92
93 </body>
94 </subsection>
95 <subsection>
96 <title>A Stage1 Approach</title>
97 <body>
98
99 <p>
100 A <e>stage1</e> is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire system
101 from scratch.
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 This approach builds core system packages that are vital to your system and is
106 used by Gentoo developers to prepare the Gentoo release media. It is a great
107 installation method for those who would like to learn more about the inner
108 workings of bootstrapping, toolchains and the like.
109 </p>
110
111 <p>
112 However, if you do not plan to tweak the bootstrapping instructions in the
113 <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script written by the Gentoo developers, then a
114 stage1 approach has no benefits for you.
115 </p>
116
117 <table>
118 <tr>
119 <th>Stage1</th>
120 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
121 </tr>
122 <tr>
123 <th>+</th>
124 <ti>
125 Allows you to have total control over the installation routine, bootstrap
126 sequence, etc.
127 </ti>
128 </tr>
129 <tr>
130 <th>+</th>
131 <ti>Suitable for powerusers and developers who know what they are doing</ti>
132 </tr>
133 <tr>
134 <th>-</th>
135 <ti>
136 Takes a long time to finish the installation (it is the lengthiest approach)
137 </ti>
138 </tr>
139 <tr>
140 <th>-</th>
141 <ti>
142 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is a waste of time
143 </ti>
144 </tr>
145 <tr>
146 <th>-</th>
147 <ti>
148 Requires a working Internet connection during the installation
149 </ti>
150 </tr>
151 </table>
152
153 </body>
154 </subsection>
155 <subsection>
156 <title>A Stage2 Approach</title>
157 <body>
158
159 <p>
160 A <e>stage2</e> is used for building the entire system from a bootstrapped
161 "semi-compiled" state.
162 </p>
163
164 <p>
165 When you perform a stage2 installation approach, you will build all system
166 packages (core packages, including toolchain) using your specific <c>USE</c>,
167 <c>CFLAGS</c> and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings. Any package build will therefore be
168 optimized to your preference.
169 </p>
170
171 <p>
172 However, this installation takes some time and if you do not intend to change
173 the <c>CFLAGS</c> and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings that we have defined as a "good
174 default", using this approach only makes sense if your <c>USE</c> variable is
175 sufficiently different from the default <c>USE</c> we provide.
176 </p>
177
178 <table>
179 <tr>
180 <th>Stage2</th>
181 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
182 </tr>
183 <tr>
184 <th>+</th>
185 <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
186 </tr>
187 <tr>
188 <th>+</th>
189 <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
190 </tr>
191 <tr>
192 <th>+</th>
193 <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
194 </tr>
195 <tr>
196 <th>-</th>
197 <ti>It's still not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
198 </tr>
199 <tr>
200 <th>-</th>
201 <ti>
202 Requires a working Internet connection during the installation
203 </ti>
204 </tr>
205 </table>
206
207 </body>
208 </subsection>
209 <subsection>
210 <title>A Stage3 Approach</title>
211 <body>
212
213 <p>
214 A <e>stage3</e> installation contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been
215 built for you. You will only need to build a few packages (such as system
216 logger, networking tools, ...) before you can boot into a base Gentoo
217 installation.
218 </p>
219
220 <p>
221 Choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
222 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
223 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
224 and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
225 stability). Stage3 is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
226 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
227 </p>
228
229 <table>
230 <tr>
231 <th>Stage3</th>
232 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
233 </tr>
234 <tr>
235 <th>+</th>
236 <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
237 </tr>
238 <tr>
239 <th>+</th>
240 <ti>
241 You can still tweak your system
242 </ti>
243 </tr>
244 </table>
245
246 <p>
247 You might be interested to know that, if you decide to use different
248 optimization settings after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to
249 recompile your entire system with the new optimization settings. The same goes
250 for any <c>USE</c> flag changes: Portage is intelligent enough to know what
251 packages need to be rebuild.
252 </p>
253
254 </body>
255 </subsection>
256 </section>
257
258 <section>
259 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
260 <subsection>
261 <title>Introduction</title>
262 <body>
263
264 <p>
265 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
266 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
267 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
268 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
269 </p>
270
271 <p>
272 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
273 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
274 two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
275 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
276 latest version of the available packages.
277 </p>
278
279 <p>
280 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, please use
281 the installation instructions described in the <uri
282 link="2005.1/index.xml">Gentoo 2005.1 Handbooks</uri>.
283 </p>
284
285 <p>
286 The two Installation CDs we currently provide are:
287 </p>
288
289 <ul>
290 <li>
291 The Gentoo Minimal Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which
292 sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue
293 with the Gentoo installation.
294 </li>
295 <li>
296 The Gentoo Universal Installation CD, a bootable CD with the same abilities
297 as the Minimal Installation CD. Additionally, it contains a stage1 and
298 several stage3 tarballs (optimized for the individual subarchitectures).
299 </li>
300 </ul>
301
302 <p>
303 To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
304 major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
305 </p>
306
307 </body>
308 </subsection>
309 <subsection>
310 <title>Gentoo's Minimal Installation CD</title>
311 <body>
312
313 <p>
314 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-minimal-2005.1.iso</c>
315 and takes up only 54 MB of diskspace. You can use this Installation CD to
316 install Gentoo, but always with a working Internet connection only.
317 </p>
318
319 <table>
320 <tr>
321 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
322 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
323 </tr>
324 <tr>
325 <th>+</th>
326 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
327 </tr>
328 <tr>
329 <th>+</th>
330 <ti>
331 You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
332 net
333 </ti>
334 </tr>
335 <tr>
336 <th>-</th>
337 <ti>
338 Contains no stages, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and is
339 therefore not suitable for networkless installation
340 </ti>
341 </tr>
342 </table>
343
344 </body>
345 </subsection>
346 <subsection>
347 <title>Gentoo's Universal Installation CD</title>
348 <body>
349
350 <p>
351 The Universal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-universal-2005.1.iso</c>
352 and consumes the entire surface of a 650 MB CD. You can use this Installation CD
353 to install Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working
354 internet connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than
355 the one you are currently installing Gentoo on :)
356 </p>
357
358 <table>
359 <tr>
360 <th>Universal Installation CD</th>
361 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
362 </tr>
363 <tr>
364 <ti>+</ti>
365 <ti>
366 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
367 connection.
368 </ti>
369 </tr>
370 <tr>
371 <ti>-</ti>
372 <ti>
373 Huge download
374 </ti>
375 </tr>
376 </table>
377
378 </body>
379 </subsection>
380 <subsection>
381 <title>Other CDs</title>
382 <body>
383
384 <p>
385 You might find a so-called Package CD on one of our mirrors. This CD is no
386 Installation CD but an additional resource that can be exploited during a
387 networkless installation. It contains prebuilt packages (the so-called GRP set)
388 that allows you to easily and quickly install additional applications (such as
389 OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the networkless Gentoo
390 installation.
391 </p>
392
393 <p>
394 If you intend to use the Packages CD to quickly install additional software,
395 make sure that you use the same subarchitecture as the stage-3 tarball you use.
396 </p>
397
398 </body>
399 </subsection>
400 </section>
401 <!-- STOP -->
402 <section>
403 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
404 <subsection>
405 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
406 <body>
407
408 <p>
409 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
410 downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
411 the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
412 </p>
413
414 <p>
415 You can download any of the Installation CDs (and, if you want to, a Packages
416 CD as well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
417 Installation CDs are located in the <path>releases/alpha/2005.1/installcd</path>
418 directory.
419 </p>
420
421 <p>
422 Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images
423 which you can write on a CD-R.
424 </p>
425
426 <p>
427 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
428 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
429 <path>install-alpha-minimal-2005.1.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5
430 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
431 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
432 </p>
433
434 <p>
435 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
436 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
437 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
438 </p>
439
440 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
441 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058</i>
442 </pre>
443
444 <p>
445 Now verify the signature:
446 </p>
447
448 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
449 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
450 </pre>
451
452 <p>
453 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
454 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
455 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
456 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
457 </p>
458
459 <ul>
460 <li>
461 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
462 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
463 device path).
464 </li>
465 <li>
466 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
467 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
468 <c>Start</c>.
469 </li>
470 </ul>
471
472 </body>
473 </subsection>
474 <subsection>
475 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
476 <body>
477
478 <p>
479 When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
480 firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
481 are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
482 Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
483 </p>
484
485 <p>
486 SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
487 operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARC
488 is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
489 an operating environment for Windows NT. You can find a
490 <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/SRM-HOWTO/">detailed guide</uri> on
491 using SRM over at the Alpha Linux website.
492 </p>
493
494 <p>
495 If your Alpha system supports both SRM and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
496 should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
497 instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
498 are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
499 will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
500 </p>
501
502 <p>
503 Now to boot an Alpha Installation CD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the
504 system. You can use SRM to boot the Installation CD. If you cannot do that, you
505 will have to use <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already,
506 use one of the precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
507 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
508 </p>
509
510 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
511 <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
512 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
513 dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
514 <comment>(...)</comment>
515 <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
516 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
517 <comment>To boot the 2.4 kernel instead of the default 2.6 kernel use:</comment>
518 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb -flags 1</i>
519 </pre>
520
521 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
522 <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
523 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.6 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_6.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
524 <comment>To boot the 2.4 kernel instead of the default 2.6 kernel use:</comment>
525 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.4 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_4.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
526 </pre>
527
528 <p>
529 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
530 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
531 started on by pressing Alt-F1.
532 </p>
533
534 <p>
535 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
536 </p>
537
538 </body>
539 </subsection>
540 <subsection id="hardware">
541 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
542 <body>
543
544 <p>
545 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
546 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
547 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may
548 not auto-load the kernel
549 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
550 hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
551 </p>
552
553 <p>
554 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
555 certain kinds of network interfaces):
556 </p>
557
558 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
559 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
560 </pre>
561
562 </body>
563 </subsection>
564 <subsection>
565 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
566 <body>
567
568 <p>
569 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
570 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
571 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
572 more precise impression):
573 </p>
574
575 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
576 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
577 </pre>
578
579 <p>
580 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
581 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
582 disk):
583 </p>
584
585 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
586 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
587 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
588 </pre>
589
590 </body>
591 </subsection>
592 <subsection id="useraccounts">
593 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
594 <body>
595
596 <p>
597 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
598 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
599 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
600 the root password.
601 </p>
602
603 <p>
604 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
605 </p>
606
607 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
608 # <i>passwd</i>
609 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
610 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
611 </pre>
612
613 <p>
614 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
615 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
616 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
617 </p>
618
619 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
620 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
621 # <i>passwd john</i>
622 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
623 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
624 </pre>
625
626 <p>
627 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
628 <c>su</c>:
629 </p>
630
631 <pre caption="Changing user id">
632 # <i>su - john</i>
633 </pre>
634
635 </body>
636 </subsection>
637 <subsection>
638 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
639 <body>
640
641 <p>
642 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
643 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
644 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
645 go to a new terminal and log in.
646 </p>
647
648 <p>
649 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
650 <c>lynx</c> to read it:
651 </p>
652
653 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
654 # <i>lynx /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
655 </pre>
656
657 <p>
658 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
659 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>lynx</c>
660 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
661 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
662 document):
663 </p>
664
665 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
666 # <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-alpha.xml</i>
667 </pre>
668
669 <p>
670 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
671 </p>
672
673 </body>
674 </subsection>
675 <subsection>
676 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
677 <body>
678
679 <p>
680 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
681 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
682 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
683 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
684 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
685 </p>
686
687 <p>
688 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
689 </p>
690
691 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
692 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
693 </pre>
694
695 <p>
696 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
697 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
698 </p>
699
700 </body>
701 </subsection>
702 </section>
703 </sections>

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