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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.36 2005/10/09 16:33:54 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.46 2007/06/30 00:50:26 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<version>2.8</version> 11<version>8.2</version>
12<date>2005-10-09</date> 12<date>2007-06-29</date>
13 13
14<section> 14<section>
15<title>Hardware Requirements</title> 15<title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16<subsection> 16<subsection>
17<title>Introduction</title> 17<title>Introduction</title>
51</table> 51</table>
52 52
53</body> 53</body>
54</subsection> 54</subsection>
55</section> 55</section>
56<!-- Copy/paste from the hb-install-x86-medium.xml file. --> 56
57<!-- START -->
58<section> 57<section>
59<title>The Gentoo Installation Approaches</title>
60<subsection>
61<title>Introduction</title>
62<body>
63
64<p>
65Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
66A stage file is a tarball (compressed archive) that contains a minimal
67environment.
68</p>
69
70<ul>
71 <li>
72 A stage1 file contains nothing more than a compiler, Portage (Gentoo's
73 software management system) and a couple of packages on which the compiler
74 or Portage depends.
75 </li>
76 <li>
77 A stage2 file contains a so-called bootstrapped system, a minimal
78 environment from which one can start building all other necessary
79 applications that make a Gentoo environment complete.
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 A stage3 file contains a prebuilt minimal system which is almost fully
83 deployable. It only lacks a few applications where you, the Gentoo user,
84 needs to choose which one you want to install.
85 </li>
86</ul>
87
88<p>
89To help you decide what stage file you want to use, we have written down the
90major advantages and disadvantages of each stage file.
91</p>
92
93</body>
94</subsection>
95<subsection>
96<title>A Stage1 Approach</title>
97<body>
98
99<p>
100A <e>stage1</e> is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire system
101from scratch.
102</p>
103
104<p>
105This approach builds core system packages that are vital to your system and is
106used by Gentoo developers to prepare the Gentoo release media. It is a great
107installation method for those who would like to learn more about the inner
108workings of bootstrapping, toolchains and the like.
109</p>
110
111<p>
112However, if you do not plan to tweak the bootstrapping instructions in the
113<path>bootstrap.sh</path> script written by the Gentoo developers, then a
114stage1 approach has no benefits for you.
115</p>
116
117<table>
118<tr>
119 <th>Stage1</th>
120 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
121</tr>
122<tr>
123 <th>+</th>
124 <ti>
125 Allows you to have total control over the installation routine, bootstrap
126 sequence, etc.
127 </ti>
128</tr>
129<tr>
130 <th>+</th>
131 <ti>Suitable for powerusers and developers who know what they are doing</ti>
132</tr>
133<tr>
134 <th>-</th>
135 <ti>
136 Takes a long time to finish the installation (it is the lengthiest approach)
137 </ti>
138</tr>
139<tr>
140 <th>-</th>
141 <ti>
142 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is a waste of time
143 </ti>
144</tr>
145<tr>
146 <th>-</th>
147 <ti>
148 Requires a working Internet connection during the installation
149 </ti>
150</tr>
151</table>
152
153</body>
154</subsection>
155<subsection>
156<title>A Stage2 Approach</title>
157<body>
158
159<p>
160A <e>stage2</e> is used for building the entire system from a bootstrapped
161"semi-compiled" state.
162</p>
163
164<p>
165When you perform a stage2 installation approach, you will build all system
166packages (core packages, including toolchain) using your specific <c>USE</c>,
167<c>CFLAGS</c> and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings. Any package build will therefore be
168optimized to your preference.
169</p>
170
171<p>
172However, this installation takes some time and if you do not intend to change
173the <c>CFLAGS</c> and <c>CXXFLAGS</c> settings that we have defined as a "good
174default", using this approach only makes sense if your <c>USE</c> variable is
175sufficiently different from the default <c>USE</c> we provide.
176</p>
177
178<table>
179<tr>
180 <th>Stage2</th>
181 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
182</tr>
183<tr>
184 <th>+</th>
185 <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
186</tr>
187<tr>
188 <th>+</th>
189 <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
190</tr>
191<tr>
192 <th>+</th>
193 <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
194</tr>
195<tr>
196 <th>-</th>
197 <ti>It's still not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
198</tr>
199<tr>
200 <th>-</th>
201 <ti>
202 Requires a working Internet connection during the installation
203 </ti>
204</tr>
205</table>
206
207</body>
208</subsection>
209<subsection>
210<title>A Stage3 Approach</title>
211<body>
212
213<p>
214A <e>stage3</e> installation contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been
215built for you. You will only need to build a few packages (such as system
216logger, networking tools, ...) before you can boot into a base Gentoo
217installation.
218</p>
219
220<p>
221Choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
222Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
223settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
224and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
225stability). Stage3 is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
226prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
227</p>
228
229<table>
230<tr>
231 <th>Stage3</th>
232 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
233</tr>
234<tr>
235 <th>+</th>
236 <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
237</tr>
238<tr>
239 <th>+</th>
240 <ti>
241 You can still tweak your system
242 </ti>
243</tr>
244</table>
245
246<p>
247You might be interested to know that, if you decide to use different
248optimization settings after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to
249recompile your entire system with the new optimization settings. The same goes
250for any <c>USE</c> flag changes: Portage is intelligent enough to know what
251packages need to be rebuild.
252</p>
253
254</body>
255</subsection>
256</section>
257
258<section>
259<title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title> 58<title>The Gentoo Installation CD</title>
260<subsection> 59<subsection>
261<title>Introduction</title> 60<title>Introduction</title>
262<body> 61<body>
263 62
264<p> 63<p>
266self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD. 65self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
267During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers 66During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
268are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers. 67are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
269</p> 68</p>
270 69
70<!--
271<p> 71<p>
272All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your 72All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
273partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide 73partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
274two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long 74two Installation CDs which are equally suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
275as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the 75as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
276latest version of the available packages. 76latest version of the available packages.
277</p> 77</p>
278 78
279<p> 79<p>
280If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, please use 80If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, please use
281the installation instructions described in the <uri 81the installation instructions described in the <uri
282link="2005.1/index.xml">Gentoo 2005.1 Handbooks</uri>. 82link="2007.0/index.xml">Gentoo 2007.0 Handbooks</uri>.
283</p> 83</p>
284 84
285<p> 85<p>
286The two Installation CDs we currently provide are: 86The two Installation CDs we currently provide are:
287</p> 87</p>
292 sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue 92 sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue
293 with the Gentoo installation. 93 with the Gentoo installation.
294 </li> 94 </li>
295 <li> 95 <li>
296 The Gentoo Universal Installation CD, a bootable CD with the same abilities 96 The Gentoo Universal Installation CD, a bootable CD with the same abilities
297 as the Minimal Installation CD. Additionally, it contains a stage1 and 97 as the Minimal Installation CD. Additionally, it contains several stage3
298 several stage3 tarballs (optimized for the individual subarchitectures). 98 tarballs (optimized for the individual subarchitectures).
299 </li> 99 </li>
300</ul> 100</ul>
301 101
302<p> 102<p>
303To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the 103To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
304major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD. 104major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
305</p> 105</p>
106-->
306 107
307</body> 108</body>
308</subsection> 109</subsection>
309<subsection> 110<subsection>
310<title>Gentoo's Minimal Installation CD</title> 111<title>Gentoo's Minimal Installation CD</title>
311<body> 112<body>
312 113
313<p> 114<p>
314The Minimal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-minimal-2005.1.iso</c> 115The Minimal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-minimal-2007.0.iso</c>
315and takes up only 54 MB of diskspace. You can use this Installation CD to 116and takes up only 65 MB of diskspace. You must use this Installation CD to
316install Gentoo, but always with a working Internet connection only. 117install Gentoo, and you need a working Internet connection.
317</p> 118</p>
318 119<!--
319<table> 120<table>
320<tr> 121<tr>
321 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th> 122 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
322 <th>Pros and Cons</th> 123 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
323</tr> 124</tr>
324<tr> 125<tr>
325 <th>+</th> 126 <th>+</th>
326 <ti>Smallest download</ti> 127 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
327</tr> 128</tr>
328<tr> 129<tr>
329 <th>+</th>
330 <ti>
331 You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
332 net
333 </ti>
334</tr>
335<tr>
336 <th>-</th> 130 <th>-</th>
337 <ti> 131 <ti>
338 Contains no stages, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and is 132 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and is
339 therefore not suitable for networkless installation 133 therefore not suitable for networkless installation
340 </ti> 134 </ti>
341</tr> 135</tr>
342</table> 136</table>
343 137
346<subsection> 140<subsection>
347<title>Gentoo's Universal Installation CD</title> 141<title>Gentoo's Universal Installation CD</title>
348<body> 142<body>
349 143
350<p> 144<p>
351The Universal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-universal-2005.1.iso</c> 145The Universal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-universal-2007.0.iso</c>
352and consumes the entire surface of a 650 MB CD. You can use this Installation CD 146and consumes about 316 MB on a CD. You can use this Installation CD to install
353to install Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working 147Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
354internet connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than 148connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
355the one you are currently installing Gentoo on :) 149you are currently installing Gentoo on :)
356</p> 150</p>
357 151
358<table> 152<table>
359<tr> 153<tr>
360 <th>Universal Installation CD</th> 154 <th>Universal Installation CD</th>
375</tr> 169</tr>
376</table> 170</table>
377 171
378</body> 172</body>
379</subsection> 173</subsection>
174
380<subsection> 175<subsection>
381<title>Other CDs</title> 176<title>Other CDs</title>
382<body> 177<body>
383 178
384<p> 179<p>
385You might find a so-called Package CD on one of our mirrors. This CD is no 180You might find a Package CD on one of our mirrors. This CD is not an
386Installation CD but an additional resource that can be exploited during a 181Installation CD but an additional resource that can be exploited during a
387networkless installation. It contains prebuilt packages (the so-called GRP set) 182networkless installation. It contains prebuilt packages (also known as the GRP
388that allows you to easily and quickly install additional applications (such as 183set) that allow you to easily and quickly install additional applications
389OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the networkless Gentoo 184(such as OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the networkless
390installation. 185Gentoo installation.
391</p> 186</p>
392 187
393<p> 188<p>
394If you intend to use the Packages CD to quickly install additional software, 189If you intend to use the Packages CD to quickly install additional software,
395make sure that you use the same subarchitecture as the stage-3 tarball you use. 190make sure that you use the same subarchitecture as the stage3 tarball you use.
191</p>
192-->
193</body>
194</subsection>
195<subsection>
196<title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
197<body>
198
199<p>
200A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment, suitable
201to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this manual.
202Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of three
203stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
204official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
205performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
206the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
207Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
396</p> 208</p>
397 209
398</body> 210</body>
399</subsection> 211</subsection>
400</section> 212</section>
410downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed 222downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
411the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them? 223the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
412</p> 224</p>
413 225
414<p> 226<p>
415You can download any of the Installation CDs (and, if you want to, a Packages 227You can download any of the Installation CDs (and, if you want to, a Packages CD
416CD as well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The 228as well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
417Installation CDs are located in the <path>releases/alpha/2005.1/installcd</path> 229Installation CDs are located in the <path><keyval
418directory. 230id="release-dir"/>installcd</path> directory.
419</p>
420
421<p> 231</p>
232
233<p>
422Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images 234Inside that directory you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which you
423which you can write on a CD-R. 235can write on a CD-R.
424</p> 236</p>
425 237
426<p> 238<p>
427In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can 239In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
428check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as 240check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
429<path>install-alpha-minimal-2005.1.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5 241<path>install-alpha-minimal-2007.0.iso.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
430checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri 242checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
431link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows. 243link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
432</p> 244</p>
433 245
434<p> 246<p>
436verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with 248verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
437<path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key: 249<path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
438</p> 250</p>
439 251
440<pre caption="Obtaining the public key"> 252<pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
441$ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058</i> 253$ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
442</pre> 254</pre>
443 255
444<p> 256<p>
445Now verify the signature: 257Now verify the signature:
446</p> 258</p>
461 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso 273 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
462 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's 274 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
463 device path). 275 device path).
464 </li> 276 </li>
465 <li> 277 <li>
466 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then 278 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>. Then you can locate
467 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click 279 your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click <c>Start</c>.
468 <c>Start</c>.
469 </li> 280 </li>
470</ul> 281</ul>
471 282
472</body> 283</body>
473</subsection> 284</subsection>
512&gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i> 323&gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
513dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM 324dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
514<comment>(...)</comment> 325<comment>(...)</comment>
515<comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment> 326<comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
516&gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i> 327&gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
517<comment>To boot the 2.4 kernel instead of the default 2.6 kernel use:</comment> 328<comment>(If you need serial console support)</comment>
518&gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb -flags 1</i> 329&gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 2</i>
519</pre> 330</pre>
520 331
521<pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO"> 332<pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
522<comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment> 333<comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
523MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.6 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_6.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i> 334MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.6 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_6.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
524<comment>To boot the 2.4 kernel instead of the default 2.6 kernel use:</comment> 335<comment>(If you need serial console support)</comment>
525MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.4 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_4.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i> 336MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.6 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_6.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs console=ttyS0 cdroot</i>
526</pre> 337</pre>
527 338
528<p> 339<p>
529You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch 340You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
530to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you 341to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
581yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your 392yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
582disk): 393disk):
583</p> 394</p>
584 395
585<pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance"> 396<pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
586<comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i> 397<comment>Activate DMA:</comment>
587<comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i> 398# <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
399<comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment>
400# <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
588</pre> 401</pre>
589 402
590</body> 403</body>
591</subsection> 404</subsection>
592<subsection id="useraccounts"> 405<subsection id="useraccounts">
661chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the 474chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
662document): 475document):
663</p> 476</p>
664 477
665<pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation"> 478<pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
666# <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-alpha.xml</i> 479# <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/<keyval id="online-book"/></i>
667</pre> 480</pre>
668 481
669<p> 482<p>
670You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>. 483You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
671</p> 484</p>

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