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#42823 - Separate architecture specific instructions in separate handbooks

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.3 2004/04/01 09:27:30 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Introduction</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
18 successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
19 architecture.
20 </p>
21
22 </body>
23 </subsection>
24 <subsection>
25 <title>The Alpha Architecture</title>
26 <body>
27
28 <p>
29 Check the following requirements before you
30 continue with the Gentoo installation:
31 </p>
32
33 <ul>
34 <li>
35 You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
36 </li>
37 <li>
38 For the <e>Alpha architecture</e>, you should check with the <uri
39 link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
40 </li>
41 </ul>
42
43 </body>
44 </subsection>
45 </section>
46 <section>
47 <title>Make your Choice</title>
48 <subsection>
49 <title>Introduction</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <p>
53 Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
54 choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
55 choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
56 Gentoo base system.
57 </p>
58
59 <p>
60 The installation media we will describe are:
61 </p>
62
63 <ul>
64 <li>The Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</li>
65 </ul>
66
67 <p>
68 Before we continue, let's explain our three-stage installation.
69 </p>
70
71 </body>
72 </subsection>
73 <subsection>
74 <title>The Three Stages</title>
75 <body>
76
77 <p>
78 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
79 The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
80 yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
81 build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
82 building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
83 The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
84 been built for you.
85 </p>
86
87 <p>
88 Now what stage do you have to choose?
89 </p>
90
91 <p>
92 Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
93 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
94 initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
95 power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
96 installation method for those who would like to know more about the
97 inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
98 </p>
99
100 <table>
101 <tr>
102 <th>Stage1</th>
103 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
104 </tr>
105 <tr>
106 <th>+</th>
107 <ti>
108 Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
109 build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
110 </ti>
111 </tr>
112 <tr>
113 <th>+</th>
114 <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
115 </tr>
116 <tr>
117 <th>+</th>
118 <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
119 </tr>
120 <tr>
121 <th>-</th>
122 <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
123 </tr>
124 <tr>
125 <th>-</th>
126 <ti>
127 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
128 </ti>
129 </tr>
130 </table>
131
132 <p>
133 <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
134 is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
135 for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
136 </p>
137
138 <table>
139 <tr>
140 <th>Stage2</th>
141 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
142 </tr>
143 <tr>
144 <th>+</th>
145 <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
146 </tr>
147 <tr>
148 <th>+</th>
149 <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
150 </tr>
151 <tr>
152 <th>+</th>
153 <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
154 </tr>
155 <tr>
156 <th>-</th>
157 <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
158 </tr>
159 <tr>
160 <th>-</th>
161 <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
162 </tr>
163 <tr>
164 <th>-</th>
165 <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
166 </tr>
167 </table>
168
169 <p>
170 Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
171 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
172 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
173 and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
174 stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
175 prebuilt packages.
176 </p>
177
178 <table>
179 <tr>
180 <th>Stage3</th>
181 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
182 </tr>
183 <tr>
184 <th>+</th>
185 <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
186 </tr>
187 <tr>
188 <th>-</th>
189 <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
190 </tr>
191 <tr>
192 <th>-</th>
193 <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
194 </tr>
195 </table>
196
197 <p>
198 Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
199 you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
200 be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
201 after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
202 with the new optimization settings.
203 </p>
204
205 <p>
206 Now take a look at the available installation media.
207 </p>
208
209 </body>
210 </subsection>
211 <subsection>
212 <title>The Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</title>
213 <body>
214
215 <p>
216 The <e>Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</e> is a bootable CD which contain a
217 self-sustained Gentoo environment. It allows you to boot Linux from the CD.
218 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
219 are loaded. It is maintained by Gentoo developers.
220 </p>
221
222 <p>
223 The <e>Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</e> is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole
224 purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue with the
225 Gentoo installation. It does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a
226 single stage1 file), source code or precompiled packages. For example the
227 alpha variant of this LiveCD can be found in the
228 <path>releases/1.4_rc1/alpha</path> subdirectory and is called
229 <c>gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2</c>.
230 </p>
231
232 </body>
233 </subsection>
234 </section>
235 <section>
236 <title>Download, Burn and Boot the Gentoo LiveCD</title>
237 <subsection>
238 <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
239 <body>
240
241 <p>
242 You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
243 wrong document). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
244 LiveCD.
245 </p>
246
247 <p>
248 Visit one of our <uri
249 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
250 <path>releases/1.4rc1/alpha</path> which is where the LiveCD(s) of your choice
251 are located. Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are
252 full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.
253 </p>
254
255 <p>
256 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
257 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
258 <path>gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2.md5sum</path>). You can check the MD5
259 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
260 link="http://www.md5summer.org">md5summer</uri> for Windows.
261 </p>
262
263 <p>
264 Once downloaded, decompress the ISO file (as it is stored in a compressed format
265 using the Burrows-Wheeler text compression algorithm) using <c>bunzip2</c> (on
266 Unix/Linux systems):
267 </p>
268
269 <pre caption="Decompressing the iso.bz2 file">
270 # <i>bunzip2 gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2</i>
271 </pre>
272
273 <p>
274 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
275 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss a couple of popular
276 tools on how to do this.
277 </p>
278
279 <ul>
280 <li>
281 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
282 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
283 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
284 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
285 </li>
286 <li>
287 With Nero Burning ROM, select <c>File</c>, <c>Burn CD image</c>. Set the
288 type of file to <c>*.*</c> and select the ISO file. Older versions of Nero
289 will tell you they don't recognize the format -- confirm here, it does
290 recognize it but doesn't know it yet :) In the next dialog, set the
291 following parameters:
292 <ul>
293 <li>Type of image: <c>Data Mode 1</c></li>
294 <li>Block size: <c>2048 bytes</c></li>
295 <li>File precursor and length of the image trailer: <c>0 bytes</c></li>
296 <li>Scrambled: <c>no</c></li>
297 <li>Swapped: <c>no</c></li>
298 </ul>
299 Now click on <c>OK</c> and then <c>Burn</c> (the CD-R)
300 </li>
301 <li>
302 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
303 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
304 by the path to the ISO file :)
305 </li>
306 </ul>
307
308 </body>
309 </subsection>
310 <subsection>
311 <title>Booting the Alpha LiveCD(s)</title>
312 <body>
313
314 <p>
315 When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
316 firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
317 are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
318 Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
319 </p>
320
321 <p>
322 SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
323 operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARM
324 is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
325 an operating environment for Windows NT.
326 </p>
327
328 <p>
329 If your Alpha system supports both SRC and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
330 should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
331 instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
332 are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
333 will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
334 </p>
335
336 <p>
337 Now to boot an Alpha LiveCD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the system.
338 You can use SRM to boot the LiveCD. If you cannot do that, you will have to use
339 <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already, use one of the
340 precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
341 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
342 </p>
343
344 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
345 <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
346 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
347 dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
348 <comment>(...)</comment>
349 <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
350 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
351 </pre>
352
353 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
354 <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
355 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:boot/vmlinuz initrd=initrd.img root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc</i>
356 </pre>
357
358 <p>
359 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
360 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
361 started on by pressing Alt-F1.
362 </p>
363
364 <p>
365 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
366 </p>
367
368 </body>
369 </subsection>
370 <subsection id="hardware">
371 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
372 <body>
373
374 <p>
375 When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
376 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
377 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
378 SPARC LiveCDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
379 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
380 hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
381 </p>
382
383 <p>
384 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
385 certain kinds of network interfaces):
386 </p>
387
388 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
389 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
390 </pre>
391
392 </body>
393 </subsection>
394 <subsection>
395 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
396 <body>
397
398 <p>
399 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
400 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
401 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
402 more precise impression):
403 </p>
404
405 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
406 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
407 </pre>
408
409 <p>
410 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
411 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
412 disk):
413 </p>
414
415 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
416 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
417 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
418 </pre>
419
420 </body>
421 </subsection>
422 <subsection>
423 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
424 <body>
425
426 <p>
427 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
428 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
429 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
430 the root password.
431 </p>
432
433 <p>
434 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
435 </p>
436
437 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
438 # <i>passwd</i>
439 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
440 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
441 </pre>
442
443 <p>
444 To create a user account, we first enter his credentials, followed by
445 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
446 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
447 </p>
448
449 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
450 # <i>useradd john</i>
451 # <i>passwd john</i>
452 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
453 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
454 </pre>
455
456 <p>
457 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
458 <c>su</c>:
459 </p>
460
461 <pre caption="Changing user id">
462 # <i>su john -</i>
463 </pre>
464
465 </body>
466 </subsection>
467 <subsection>
468 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
469 <body>
470
471 <p>
472 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
473 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
474 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
475 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
476 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
477 </p>
478
479 <p>
480 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
481 </p>
482
483 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
484 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
485 </pre>
486
487 <p>
488 To be able to use sshd, you first need to setup your networking. Continue with
489 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
490 </p>
491
492 </body>
493 </subsection>
494 </section>
495 </sections>

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