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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.29 2005/03/29 23:09:28 vapier Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.2</version>
12 <date>2005-04-04</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 </p>
24
25 </body>
26 </subsection>
27 <subsection>
28 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 <body>
30
31 <table>
32 <tr>
33 <th>CPU</th>
34 <ti>
35 Please check with the <uri
36 link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
37 </ti>
38 </tr>
39 <tr>
40 <th>Memory</th>
41 <ti>64 MB</ti>
42 </tr>
43 <tr>
44 <th>Diskspace</th>
45 <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
46 </tr>
47 <tr>
48 <th>Swap space</th>
49 <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
50 </tr>
51 </table>
52
53 </body>
54 </subsection>
55 </section>
56 <!-- Copy/paste from the hb-install-x86-medium.xml file. -->
57 <!-- START -->
58 <section>
59 <title>The Gentoo Installation Approaches</title>
60 <subsection>
61 <title>Introduction</title>
62 <body>
63
64 <p>
65 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
66 A stage file is a tarball (compressed archive) that contains a minimal
67 environment.
68 </p>
69
70 <ul>
71 <li>
72 A stage1 file contains nothing more than a compiler, Portage (Gentoo's
73 software management system) and a couple of packages on which the compiler
74 or Portage depends.
75 </li>
76 <li>
77 A stage2 file contains a so-called bootstrapped system, a minimal
78 environment from which one can start building all other necessary
79 applications that make a Gentoo environment complete.
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 A stage3 file contains a prebuilt minimal system which is almost fully
83 deployable. It only lacks a few applications where you, the Gentoo user,
84 needs to choose which one you want to install.
85 </li>
86 </ul>
87
88 <p>
89 To help you decide what stage file you want to use, we have written down the
90 major advantages and disadvantages of each stage file.
91 </p>
92
93 </body>
94 </subsection>
95 <subsection>
96 <title>A Stage1 Approach</title>
97 <body>
98
99 <p>
100 A <e>stage1</e> is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire system
101 from scratch.
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the
106 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
107 initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
108 power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
109 installation method for those who would like to know more about the
110 inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
111 </p>
112
113 <table>
114 <tr>
115 <th>Stage1</th>
116 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
117 </tr>
118 <tr>
119 <th>+</th>
120 <ti>
121 Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
122 build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
123 </ti>
124 </tr>
125 <tr>
126 <th>+</th>
127 <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
128 </tr>
129 <tr>
130 <th>+</th>
131 <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
132 </tr>
133 <tr>
134 <th>-</th>
135 <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
136 </tr>
137 <tr>
138 <th>-</th>
139 <ti>
140 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is a waste of time
141 </ti>
142 </tr>
143 </table>
144
145 </body>
146 </subsection>
147 <subsection>
148 <title>A Stage2 Approach</title>
149 <body>
150
151 <p>
152 A <e>stage2</e> is used for building the entire system from a bootstrapped
153 "semi-compiled" state.
154 </p>
155
156 <p>
157 Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process; doing this
158 is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
159 for your particular stage2 tarball.
160 </p>
161
162 <table>
163 <tr>
164 <th>Stage2</th>
165 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
166 </tr>
167 <tr>
168 <th>+</th>
169 <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
170 </tr>
171 <tr>
172 <th>+</th>
173 <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
174 </tr>
175 <tr>
176 <th>+</th>
177 <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
178 </tr>
179 <tr>
180 <th>-</th>
181 <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
182 </tr>
183 <tr>
184 <th>-</th>
185 <ti>It's still not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
186 </tr>
187 <tr>
188 <th>-</th>
189 <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
190 </tr>
191 </table>
192
193 </body>
194 </subsection>
195 <subsection>
196 <title>A Stage3 Approach</title>
197 <body>
198
199 <p>
200 A <e>stage3</e> installation contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been
201 built for you. You will only need to build a few packages of which we can't
202 decide for you which one to choose.
203 </p>
204
205 <p>
206 Choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
207 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
208 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
209 and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
210 stability). Stage3 is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
211 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
212 </p>
213
214 <table>
215 <tr>
216 <th>Stage3</th>
217 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
218 </tr>
219 <tr>
220 <th>+</th>
221 <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
222 </tr>
223 <tr>
224 <th>-</th>
225 <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
226 </tr>
227 </table>
228
229 <p>
230 You might be interested to know that, if you decide to use different
231 optimization settings after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to
232 recompile your entire system with the new optimization settings.
233 </p>
234
235 </body>
236 </subsection>
237 </section>
238 <section>
239 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
240 <subsection>
241 <title>Introduction</title>
242 <body>
243
244 <p>
245 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
246 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
247 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
248 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
249 </p>
250
251 <p>
252 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
253 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
254 two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
255 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
256 latest version of the available packages.
257 </p>
258
259 <p>
260 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, please use
261 the installation instructions described in the <uri
262 link="2005.0/index.xml">Gentoo 2005.0 Handbooks</uri>.
263 </p>
264
265 <p>
266 The two Installation CDs we currently provide are:
267 </p>
268
269 <ul>
270 <li>
271 The Gentoo Minimal Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which
272 sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue
273 with the Gentoo installation.
274 </li>
275 <li>
276 The Gentoo Universal Installation CD, a bootable CD with the same abilities
277 as the Minimal Installation CD. Additionally, it contains a stage1 and
278 several stage3 tarballs (optimized for the individual subarchitectures).
279 </li>
280 </ul>
281
282 <p>
283 To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
284 major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
285 </p>
286
287 </body>
288 </subsection>
289 <subsection>
290 <title>Gentoo's Minimal Installation CD</title>
291 <body>
292
293 <p>
294 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-minimal-2005.0.iso</c>
295 and takes up only 54 MB of diskspace. You can use this Installation CD to
296 install Gentoo, but always with a working Internet connection only.
297 </p>
298
299 <table>
300 <tr>
301 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
302 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
303 </tr>
304 <tr>
305 <th>+</th>
306 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
307 </tr>
308 <tr>
309 <th>+</th>
310 <ti>
311 You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
312 net
313 </ti>
314 </tr>
315 <tr>
316 <th>-</th>
317 <ti>
318 Contains no stages, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and is
319 therefore not suitable for networkless installation
320 </ti>
321 </tr>
322 </table>
323
324 </body>
325 </subsection>
326 <subsection>
327 <title>Gentoo's Universal Installation CD</title>
328 <body>
329
330 <p>
331 The Universal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-universal-2005.0.iso</c>
332 and consumes the entire surface of a 650 MB CD. You can use this Installation CD
333 to install Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working
334 internet connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than
335 the one you are currently installing Gentoo on :)
336 </p>
337
338 <table>
339 <tr>
340 <th>Universal Installation CD</th>
341 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
342 </tr>
343 <tr>
344 <ti>+</ti>
345 <ti>
346 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
347 connection.
348 </ti>
349 </tr>
350 <tr>
351 <ti>-</ti>
352 <ti>
353 Huge download
354 </ti>
355 </tr>
356 </table>
357
358 </body>
359 </subsection>
360 <subsection>
361 <title>Other CDs</title>
362 <body>
363
364 <p>
365 You might find a so-called Package CD on one of our mirrors. This CD is no
366 Installation CD but an additional resource that can be exploited during a
367 networkless installation. It contains prebuilt packages (the so-called GRP set)
368 that allows you to easily and quickly install additional applications (such as
369 OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the networkless Gentoo
370 installation.
371 </p>
372
373 </body>
374 </subsection>
375 </section>
376 <!-- STOP -->
377 <section>
378 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
379 <subsection>
380 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
381 <body>
382
383 <p>
384 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
385 downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
386 the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
387 </p>
388
389 <p>
390 You can download any of the Installation CDs (and, if you want to, a Packages
391 CD as well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
392 Installation CDs are located in the <path>releases/alpha/2005.0/installcd</path>
393 directory.
394 </p>
395
396 <p>
397 Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images
398 which you can write on a CD-R.
399 </p>
400
401 <p>
402 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
403 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
404 <path>install-alpha-minimal-2005.0.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5
405 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
406 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
407 </p>
408
409 <p>
410 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
411 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
412 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
413 </p>
414
415 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
416 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058</i>
417 </pre>
418
419 <p>
420 Now verify the signature:
421 </p>
422
423 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
424 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
425 </pre>
426
427 <p>
428 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
429 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
430 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
431 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
432 </p>
433
434 <ul>
435 <li>
436 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
437 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
438 device path).
439 </li>
440 <li>
441 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
442 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
443 <c>Start</c>.
444 </li>
445 </ul>
446
447 </body>
448 </subsection>
449 <subsection>
450 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
451 <body>
452
453 <p>
454 When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
455 firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
456 are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
457 Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
458 </p>
459
460 <p>
461 SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
462 operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARC
463 is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
464 an operating environment for Windows NT. You can find a
465 <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/SRM-HOWTO/">detailed guide</uri> on
466 using SRM over at the Alpha Linux website.
467 </p>
468
469 <p>
470 If your Alpha system supports both SRM and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
471 should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
472 instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
473 are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
474 will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
475 </p>
476
477 <p>
478 Now to boot an Alpha Installation CD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the
479 system. You can use SRM to boot the Installation CD. If you cannot do that, you
480 will have to use <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already,
481 use one of the precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
482 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
483 </p>
484
485 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
486 <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
487 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
488 dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
489 <comment>(...)</comment>
490 <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
491 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
492 </pre>
493
494 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
495 <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
496 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo initrd=/boot/gentoo.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
497 </pre>
498
499 <p>
500 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
501 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
502 started on by pressing Alt-F1.
503 </p>
504
505 <p>
506 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
507 </p>
508
509 </body>
510 </subsection>
511 <subsection id="hardware">
512 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
513 <body>
514
515 <p>
516 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
517 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
518 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may
519 not auto-load the kernel
520 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
521 hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
522 </p>
523
524 <p>
525 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
526 certain kinds of network interfaces):
527 </p>
528
529 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
530 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
531 </pre>
532
533 </body>
534 </subsection>
535 <subsection>
536 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
537 <body>
538
539 <p>
540 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
541 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
542 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
543 more precise impression):
544 </p>
545
546 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
547 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
548 </pre>
549
550 <p>
551 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
552 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
553 disk):
554 </p>
555
556 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
557 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
558 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
559 </pre>
560
561 </body>
562 </subsection>
563 <subsection id="useraccounts">
564 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
565 <body>
566
567 <p>
568 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
569 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
570 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
571 the root password.
572 </p>
573
574 <p>
575 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
576 </p>
577
578 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
579 # <i>passwd</i>
580 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
581 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
582 </pre>
583
584 <p>
585 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
586 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
587 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
588 </p>
589
590 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
591 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
592 # <i>passwd john</i>
593 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
594 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
595 </pre>
596
597 <p>
598 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
599 <c>su</c>:
600 </p>
601
602 <pre caption="Changing user id">
603 # <i>su - john</i>
604 </pre>
605
606 </body>
607 </subsection>
608 <subsection>
609 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
610 <body>
611
612 <p>
613 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
614 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
615 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
616 go to a new terminal and log in.
617 </p>
618
619 <p>
620 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
621 <c>lynx</c> to read it:
622 </p>
623
624 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
625 # <i>lynx /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
626 </pre>
627
628 <p>
629 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
630 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>lynx</c>
631 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
632 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
633 document):
634 </p>
635
636 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
637 # <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-alpha.xml</i>
638 </pre>
639
640 <p>
641 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
642 </p>
643
644 </body>
645 </subsection>
646 <subsection>
647 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
648 <body>
649
650 <p>
651 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
652 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
653 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
654 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
655 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
656 </p>
657
658 <p>
659 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
660 </p>
661
662 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
663 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
664 </pre>
665
666 <p>
667 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
668 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
669 </p>
670
671 </body>
672 </subsection>
673 </section>
674 </sections>

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