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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.32 2005/05/25 09:47:58 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.5</version>
12 <date>2005-08-01</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 </p>
24
25 </body>
26 </subsection>
27 <subsection>
28 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 <body>
30
31 <table>
32 <tr>
33 <th>CPU</th>
34 <ti>
35 Please check with the <uri
36 link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
37 </ti>
38 </tr>
39 <tr>
40 <th>Memory</th>
41 <ti>64 MB</ti>
42 </tr>
43 <tr>
44 <th>Diskspace</th>
45 <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
46 </tr>
47 <tr>
48 <th>Swap space</th>
49 <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
50 </tr>
51 </table>
52
53 </body>
54 </subsection>
55 </section>
56 <!-- Copy/paste from the hb-install-x86-medium.xml file. -->
57 <!-- START -->
58 <section>
59 <title>The Gentoo Installation Approaches</title>
60 <subsection>
61 <title>Introduction</title>
62 <body>
63
64 <p>
65 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
66 A stage file is a tarball (compressed archive) that contains a minimal
67 environment.
68 </p>
69
70 <ul>
71 <li>
72 A stage1 file contains nothing more than a compiler, Portage (Gentoo's
73 software management system) and a couple of packages on which the compiler
74 or Portage depends.
75 </li>
76 <li>
77 A stage2 file contains a so-called bootstrapped system, a minimal
78 environment from which one can start building all other necessary
79 applications that make a Gentoo environment complete.
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 A stage3 file contains a prebuilt minimal system which is almost fully
83 deployable. It only lacks a few applications where you, the Gentoo user,
84 needs to choose which one you want to install.
85 </li>
86 </ul>
87
88 <p>
89 To help you decide what stage file you want to use, we have written down the
90 major advantages and disadvantages of each stage file.
91 </p>
92
93 </body>
94 </subsection>
95 <subsection>
96 <title>A Stage1 Approach</title>
97 <body>
98
99 <p>
100 A <e>stage1</e> is used when you want to bootstrap and build the entire system
101 from scratch.
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 Starting from a stage1 allows you to have total control over the
106 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
107 initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
108 power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
109 installation method for those who would like to know more about the
110 inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
111 </p>
112
113 <table>
114 <tr>
115 <th>Stage1</th>
116 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
117 </tr>
118 <tr>
119 <th>+</th>
120 <ti>
121 Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
122 build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
123 </ti>
124 </tr>
125 <tr>
126 <th>+</th>
127 <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
128 </tr>
129 <tr>
130 <th>+</th>
131 <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
132 </tr>
133 <tr>
134 <th>-</th>
135 <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
136 </tr>
137 <tr>
138 <th>-</th>
139 <ti>
140 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is a waste of time
141 </ti>
142 </tr>
143 <tr>
144 <th>-</th>
145 <ti>
146 Requires a working Internet connection during the installation
147 </ti>
148 </tr>
149 </table>
150
151 </body>
152 </subsection>
153 <subsection>
154 <title>A Stage2 Approach</title>
155 <body>
156
157 <p>
158 A <e>stage2</e> is used for building the entire system from a bootstrapped
159 "semi-compiled" state.
160 </p>
161
162 <p>
163 Stage2 installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process; doing this
164 is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
165 for your particular stage2 tarball.
166 </p>
167
168 <table>
169 <tr>
170 <th>Stage2</th>
171 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
172 </tr>
173 <tr>
174 <th>+</th>
175 <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
176 </tr>
177 <tr>
178 <th>+</th>
179 <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
180 </tr>
181 <tr>
182 <th>+</th>
183 <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
184 </tr>
185 <tr>
186 <th>-</th>
187 <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
188 </tr>
189 <tr>
190 <th>-</th>
191 <ti>It's still not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
192 </tr>
193 <tr>
194 <th>-</th>
195 <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
196 </tr>
197 <tr>
198 <th>-</th>
199 <ti>
200 Requires a working Internet connection during the installation
201 </ti>
202 </tr>
203 </table>
204
205 </body>
206 </subsection>
207 <subsection>
208 <title>A Stage3 Approach</title>
209 <body>
210
211 <p>
212 A <e>stage3</e> installation contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has been
213 built for you. You will only need to build a few packages of which we can't
214 decide for you which one to choose.
215 </p>
216
217 <p>
218 Choosing to go with a stage3 allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
219 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
220 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
221 and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
222 stability). Stage3 is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
223 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
224 </p>
225
226 <table>
227 <tr>
228 <th>Stage3</th>
229 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
230 </tr>
231 <tr>
232 <th>+</th>
233 <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
234 </tr>
235 <tr>
236 <th>-</th>
237 <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
238 </tr>
239 </table>
240
241 <p>
242 You might be interested to know that, if you decide to use different
243 optimization settings after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to
244 recompile your entire system with the new optimization settings.
245 </p>
246
247 </body>
248 </subsection>
249 </section>
250 <section>
251 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
252 <subsection>
253 <title>Introduction</title>
254 <body>
255
256 <p>
257 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
258 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
259 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
260 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
261 </p>
262
263 <p>
264 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
265 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
266 two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
267 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
268 latest version of the available packages.
269 </p>
270
271 <p>
272 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, please use
273 the installation instructions described in the <uri
274 link="2005.0/index.xml">Gentoo 2005.0 Handbooks</uri>.
275 </p>
276
277 <p>
278 The two Installation CDs we currently provide are:
279 </p>
280
281 <ul>
282 <li>
283 The Gentoo Minimal Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which
284 sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue
285 with the Gentoo installation.
286 </li>
287 <li>
288 The Gentoo Universal Installation CD, a bootable CD with the same abilities
289 as the Minimal Installation CD. Additionally, it contains a stage1 and
290 several stage3 tarballs (optimized for the individual subarchitectures).
291 </li>
292 </ul>
293
294 <p>
295 To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
296 major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
297 </p>
298
299 </body>
300 </subsection>
301 <subsection>
302 <title>Gentoo's Minimal Installation CD</title>
303 <body>
304
305 <p>
306 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-minimal-2005.0.iso</c>
307 and takes up only 54 MB of diskspace. You can use this Installation CD to
308 install Gentoo, but always with a working Internet connection only.
309 </p>
310
311 <table>
312 <tr>
313 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
314 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
315 </tr>
316 <tr>
317 <th>+</th>
318 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
319 </tr>
320 <tr>
321 <th>+</th>
322 <ti>
323 You can do a stage1, stage2 or stage3 by getting the stage tarball off the
324 net
325 </ti>
326 </tr>
327 <tr>
328 <th>-</th>
329 <ti>
330 Contains no stages, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and is
331 therefore not suitable for networkless installation
332 </ti>
333 </tr>
334 </table>
335
336 </body>
337 </subsection>
338 <subsection>
339 <title>Gentoo's Universal Installation CD</title>
340 <body>
341
342 <p>
343 The Universal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-universal-2005.0.iso</c>
344 and consumes the entire surface of a 650 MB CD. You can use this Installation CD
345 to install Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working
346 internet connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than
347 the one you are currently installing Gentoo on :)
348 </p>
349
350 <table>
351 <tr>
352 <th>Universal Installation CD</th>
353 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
354 </tr>
355 <tr>
356 <ti>+</ti>
357 <ti>
358 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
359 connection.
360 </ti>
361 </tr>
362 <tr>
363 <ti>-</ti>
364 <ti>
365 Huge download
366 </ti>
367 </tr>
368 </table>
369
370 </body>
371 </subsection>
372 <subsection>
373 <title>Other CDs</title>
374 <body>
375
376 <p>
377 You might find a so-called Package CD on one of our mirrors. This CD is no
378 Installation CD but an additional resource that can be exploited during a
379 networkless installation. It contains prebuilt packages (the so-called GRP set)
380 that allows you to easily and quickly install additional applications (such as
381 OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the networkless Gentoo
382 installation.
383 </p>
384
385 </body>
386 </subsection>
387 </section>
388 <!-- STOP -->
389 <section>
390 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
391 <subsection>
392 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
393 <body>
394
395 <p>
396 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
397 downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
398 the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
399 </p>
400
401 <p>
402 You can download any of the Installation CDs (and, if you want to, a Packages
403 CD as well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
404 Installation CDs are located in the <path>releases/alpha/2005.0/installcd</path>
405 directory.
406 </p>
407
408 <p>
409 Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are full CD images
410 which you can write on a CD-R.
411 </p>
412
413 <p>
414 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
415 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
416 <path>install-alpha-minimal-2005.0.iso.md5</path>). You can check the MD5
417 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
418 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
419 </p>
420
421 <p>
422 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
423 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
424 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
425 </p>
426
427 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
428 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 17072058</i>
429 </pre>
430
431 <p>
432 Now verify the signature:
433 </p>
434
435 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
436 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
437 </pre>
438
439 <p>
440 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
441 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
442 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
443 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
444 </p>
445
446 <ul>
447 <li>
448 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
449 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
450 device path).
451 </li>
452 <li>
453 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
454 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
455 <c>Start</c>.
456 </li>
457 </ul>
458
459 </body>
460 </subsection>
461 <subsection>
462 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
463 <body>
464
465 <p>
466 When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
467 firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
468 are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
469 Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
470 </p>
471
472 <p>
473 SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
474 operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARC
475 is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
476 an operating environment for Windows NT. You can find a
477 <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/SRM-HOWTO/">detailed guide</uri> on
478 using SRM over at the Alpha Linux website.
479 </p>
480
481 <p>
482 If your Alpha system supports both SRM and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
483 should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
484 instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
485 are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
486 will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
487 </p>
488
489 <p>
490 Now to boot an Alpha Installation CD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the
491 system. You can use SRM to boot the Installation CD. If you cannot do that, you
492 will have to use <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already,
493 use one of the precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
494 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
495 </p>
496
497 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
498 <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
499 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
500 dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
501 <comment>(...)</comment>
502 <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
503 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
504 <comment>To boot the 2.4 kernel instead of the default 2.6 kernel use:</comment>
505 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb -flags 1</i>
506 </pre>
507
508 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
509 <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
510 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.6 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_6.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
511 <comment>To boot the 2.4 kernel instead of the default 2.6 kernel use:</comment>
512 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.4 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_4.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
513 </pre>
514
515 <p>
516 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
517 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
518 started on by pressing Alt-F1.
519 </p>
520
521 <p>
522 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
523 </p>
524
525 </body>
526 </subsection>
527 <subsection id="hardware">
528 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
529 <body>
530
531 <p>
532 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
533 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
534 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may
535 not auto-load the kernel
536 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
537 hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
538 </p>
539
540 <p>
541 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
542 certain kinds of network interfaces):
543 </p>
544
545 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
546 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
547 </pre>
548
549 </body>
550 </subsection>
551 <subsection>
552 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
553 <body>
554
555 <p>
556 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
557 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
558 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
559 more precise impression):
560 </p>
561
562 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
563 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
564 </pre>
565
566 <p>
567 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
568 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
569 disk):
570 </p>
571
572 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
573 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
574 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
575 </pre>
576
577 </body>
578 </subsection>
579 <subsection id="useraccounts">
580 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
581 <body>
582
583 <p>
584 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
585 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
586 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
587 the root password.
588 </p>
589
590 <p>
591 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
592 </p>
593
594 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
595 # <i>passwd</i>
596 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
597 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
598 </pre>
599
600 <p>
601 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
602 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
603 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
604 </p>
605
606 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
607 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
608 # <i>passwd john</i>
609 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
610 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
611 </pre>
612
613 <p>
614 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
615 <c>su</c>:
616 </p>
617
618 <pre caption="Changing user id">
619 # <i>su - john</i>
620 </pre>
621
622 </body>
623 </subsection>
624 <subsection>
625 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
626 <body>
627
628 <p>
629 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
630 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
631 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
632 go to a new terminal and log in.
633 </p>
634
635 <p>
636 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
637 <c>lynx</c> to read it:
638 </p>
639
640 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
641 # <i>lynx /mnt/cdrom/docs/handbook/html/index.html</i>
642 </pre>
643
644 <p>
645 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
646 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>lynx</c>
647 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
648 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
649 document):
650 </p>
651
652 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
653 # <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-alpha.xml</i>
654 </pre>
655
656 <p>
657 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
658 </p>
659
660 </body>
661 </subsection>
662 <subsection>
663 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
664 <body>
665
666 <p>
667 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
668 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
669 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
670 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
671 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
672 </p>
673
674 <p>
675 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
676 </p>
677
678 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
679 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
680 </pre>
681
682 <p>
683 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
684 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
685 </p>
686
687 </body>
688 </subsection>
689 </section>
690 </sections>

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