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Handbook for 2006.0, "Chuck Norris can divide by zero"

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.17 2006/02/26 20:10:43 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.11</version>
12 <date>2006-02-27</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 </p>
24
25 </body>
26 </subsection>
27 <subsection>
28 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 <body>
30
31 <table>
32 <tr>
33 <th>CPU</th>
34 <ti>
35 Please check with the <uri
36 link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
37 </ti>
38 </tr>
39 <tr>
40 <th>Memory</th>
41 <ti>64 MB</ti>
42 </tr>
43 <tr>
44 <th>Diskspace</th>
45 <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
46 </tr>
47 <tr>
48 <th>Swap space</th>
49 <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
50 </tr>
51 </table>
52
53 </body>
54 </subsection>
55 </section>
56
57 <!-- Copy/paste from hb-install-x86-medium.xml -->
58 <!-- START -->
59 <section>
60 <title>The Gentoo Installation CDs</title>
61 <subsection>
62 <title>Introduction</title>
63 <body>
64
65 <p>
66 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
67 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
68 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
69 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
70 </p>
71
72 <p>
73 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
74 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
75 two Installation CDs which are equaly suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
76 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
77 latest version of the available packages.
78 </p>
79
80 <p>
81 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, please use
82 the installation instructions described in the <uri
83 link="2006.0/index.xml">Gentoo 2006.0 Handbooks</uri>.
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 The two Installation CDs we currently provide are:
88 </p>
89
90 <ul>
91 <li>
92 The Gentoo Minimal Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which
93 sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue
94 with the Gentoo installation.
95 </li>
96 <li>
97 The Gentoo Universal Installation CD, a bootable CD with the same abilities
98 as the Minimal Installation CD. Additionally, it contains several stage3
99 tarballs (optimized for the individual subarchitectures).
100 </li>
101 </ul>
102
103 <p>
104 To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
105 major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
106 </p>
107
108 </body>
109 </subsection>
110 <subsection>
111 <title>Gentoo's Minimal Installation CD</title>
112 <body>
113
114 <p>
115 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-minimal-2006.0.iso</c>
116 and takes up only 65 MB of diskspace. You can use this Installation CD to
117 install Gentoo, but always with a working Internet connection only.
118 </p>
119
120 <table>
121 <tr>
122 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
123 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
124 </tr>
125 <tr>
126 <th>+</th>
127 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
128 </tr>
129 <tr>
130 <th>-</th>
131 <ti>
132 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and is
133 therefore not suitable for networkless installation
134 </ti>
135 </tr>
136 </table>
137
138 </body>
139 </subsection>
140 <subsection>
141 <title>Gentoo's Universal Installation CD</title>
142 <body>
143
144 <p>
145 The Universal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-universal-2006.0.iso</c>
146 and consumes about 316 MB on a CD. You can use this Installation CD to install
147 Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
148 connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
149 you are currently installing Gentoo on :)
150 </p>
151
152 <table>
153 <tr>
154 <th>Universal Installation CD</th>
155 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
156 </tr>
157 <tr>
158 <ti>+</ti>
159 <ti>
160 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
161 connection.
162 </ti>
163 </tr>
164 <tr>
165 <ti>-</ti>
166 <ti>
167 Huge download
168 </ti>
169 </tr>
170 </table>
171
172 </body>
173 </subsection>
174 <!-- No package CDs for Alpha - 2006.0
175 <subsection>
176 <title>Other CDs</title>
177 <body>
178
179 <p>
180 You might find a Package CD on one of our mirrors. This CD is not an
181 Installation CD but an additional resource that can be exploited during a
182 networkless installation. It contains prebuilt packages (also known as the GRP
183 set) that allow you to easily and quickly install additional applications
184 (such as OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the networkless
185 Gentoo installation.
186 </p>
187
188 <p>
189 If you intend to use the Packages CD to quickly install additional software,
190 make sure that you use the same subarchitecture as the stage3 tarball you use.
191 </p>
192
193 </body>
194 </subsection>-->
195 <subsection>
196 <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
197 <body>
198
199 <p>
200 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment, suitable
201 to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this manual.
202 Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of three
203 stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
204 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
205 performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
206 the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
207 Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
208 </p>
209
210 </body>
211 </subsection>
212 </section>
213 <!-- STOP -->
214 <section>
215 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
216 <subsection>
217 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
218 <body>
219
220 <p>
221 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
222 downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
223 the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
224 </p>
225
226 <p>
227 You can download any of the Installation CDs (and, if you want to, a Packages
228 CD as well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
229 Installation CDs are located in the <path>releases/alpha/2006.0/installcd</path>
230 directory.
231 </p>
232
233 <p>
234 Inside that directory you'll find ISO-files. Those are full CD images which you
235 can write on a CD-R.
236 </p>
237
238 <p>
239 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
240 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
241 <path>install-alpha-minimal-2006.0.iso.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5
242 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
243 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
244 </p>
245
246 <p>
247 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
248 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
249 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
250 </p>
251
252 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
253 $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
254 </pre>
255
256 <p>
257 Now verify the signature:
258 </p>
259
260 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
261 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
262 </pre>
263
264 <p>
265 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
266 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
267 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
268 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
269 </p>
270
271 <ul>
272 <li>
273 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
274 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
275 device path).
276 </li>
277 <li>
278 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
279 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
280 <c>Start</c>.
281 </li>
282 </ul>
283
284 </body>
285 </subsection>
286 <subsection>
287 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
288 <body>
289
290 <p>
291 When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
292 firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
293 are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
294 Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
295 </p>
296
297 <p>
298 SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
299 operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARC
300 is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
301 an operating environment for Windows NT. You can find a
302 <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/SRM-HOWTO/">detailed guide</uri> on
303 using SRM over at the Alpha Linux website.
304 </p>
305
306 <p>
307 If your Alpha system supports both SRM and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
308 should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
309 instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
310 are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
311 will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
312 </p>
313
314 <p>
315 Now to boot an Alpha Installation CD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the
316 system. You can use SRM to boot the Installation CD. If you cannot do that, you
317 will have to use <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already,
318 use one of the precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
319 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
320 </p>
321
322 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
323 <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
324 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
325 dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
326 <comment>(...)</comment>
327 <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
328 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
329 <comment>To boot the 2.4 kernel instead of the default 2.6 kernel use:</comment>
330 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb -flags 1</i>
331 </pre>
332
333 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
334 <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
335 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.6 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_6.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
336 <comment>To boot the 2.4 kernel instead of the default 2.6 kernel use:</comment>
337 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.4 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_4.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
338 </pre>
339
340 <note>
341 The default Alpha profile uses nptl and requires a 2.6 kernel. If your system
342 cannot support nptl (or you do not want to use nptl), you should use the 2.4
343 kernel. Alternatively, if you prefer to compile your system without nptl, you
344 will be given the chance to select a stage built without nptl in <uri
345 link="?part=1&amp;chap=5">Installing a Stage Tarball</uri>.
346 </note>
347
348 <p>
349 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
350 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
351 started on by pressing Alt-F1.
352 </p>
353
354 <p>
355 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
356 </p>
357
358 </body>
359 </subsection>
360 <subsection id="hardware">
361 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
362 <body>
363
364 <p>
365 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
366 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
367 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may
368 not auto-load the kernel
369 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
370 hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
371 </p>
372
373 <p>
374 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
375 certain kinds of network interfaces):
376 </p>
377
378 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
379 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
380 </pre>
381
382 </body>
383 </subsection>
384 <subsection>
385 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
386 <body>
387
388 <p>
389 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
390 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
391 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
392 more precise impression):
393 </p>
394
395 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
396 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
397 </pre>
398
399 <p>
400 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
401 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
402 disk):
403 </p>
404
405 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
406 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
407 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
408 </pre>
409
410 </body>
411 </subsection>
412 <subsection id="useraccounts">
413 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
414 <body>
415
416 <p>
417 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
418 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
419 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
420 the root password.
421 </p>
422
423 <p>
424 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
425 </p>
426
427 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
428 # <i>passwd</i>
429 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
430 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
431 </pre>
432
433 <p>
434 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
435 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
436 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
437 </p>
438
439 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
440 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
441 # <i>passwd john</i>
442 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
443 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
444 </pre>
445
446 <p>
447 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
448 <c>su</c>:
449 </p>
450
451 <pre caption="Changing user id">
452 # <i>su - john</i>
453 </pre>
454
455 </body>
456 </subsection>
457 <subsection>
458 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
459 <body>
460
461 <p>
462 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
463 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
464 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
465 go to a new terminal and log in.
466 </p>
467
468 <p>
469 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
470 <c>lynx</c> to read it:
471 </p>
472
473 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
474 # <i>lynx /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
475 </pre>
476
477 <p>
478 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
479 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>lynx</c>
480 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
481 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
482 document):
483 </p>
484
485 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
486 # <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/handbook-alpha.xml</i>
487 </pre>
488
489 <p>
490 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
491 </p>
492
493 </body>
494 </subsection>
495 <subsection>
496 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
497 <body>
498
499 <p>
500 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
501 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
502 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
503 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
504 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
505 </p>
506
507 <p>
508 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
509 </p>
510
511 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
512 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
513 </pre>
514
515 <p>
516 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
517 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
518 </p>
519
520 </body>
521 </subsection>
522 </section>
523 </sections>

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