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release time. note that since this is beta1, the release dir and stage/media names have been adjusted accordingly. also, the handbooks are marked with a disclaimer=draft, so once the final is out, that will be removed and the release names adjusted. in the mean time, these are live. the beta is officially released. no, it's not april fools, but it is april 1st. :)

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.31 2008/03/31 21:48:58 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>9.0</version>
12 <date>2008-04-01</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>Introduction</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
22 successfully install Gentoo on your box.
23 </p>
24
25 </body>
26 </subsection>
27 <subsection>
28 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
29 <body>
30
31 <table>
32 <tr>
33 <th>CPU</th>
34 <ti>
35 Please check with the <uri
36 link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
37 </ti>
38 </tr>
39 <tr>
40 <th>Memory</th>
41 <ti>64 MB</ti>
42 </tr>
43 <tr>
44 <th>Diskspace</th>
45 <ti>1.5 GB (excluding swap space)</ti>
46 </tr>
47 <tr>
48 <th>Swap space</th>
49 <ti>At least 256 MB</ti>
50 </tr>
51 </table>
52
53 </body>
54 </subsection>
55 </section>
56
57 <section>
58 <title>The Gentoo Installation CD</title>
59 <subsection>
60 <title>Introduction</title>
61 <body>
62
63 <p>
64 The <e>Gentoo Installation CDs</e> are bootable CDs which contain a
65 self-sustained Gentoo environment. They allow you to boot Linux from the CD.
66 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
67 are loaded. They are maintained by Gentoo developers.
68 </p>
69
70 <!--
71 <p>
72 All Installation CDs allow you to boot, set up networking, initialize your
73 partitions and start installing Gentoo from the Internet. We currently provide
74 two Installation CDs which are equally suitable to install Gentoo from, as long
75 as you're planning on performing an Internet-based installation using the
76 latest version of the available packages.
77 </p>
78
79 <p>
80 If you wish to install Gentoo without a working Internet connection, please use
81 the installation instructions described in the <uri
82 link="2008.0/index.xml">Gentoo 2008.0 Handbooks</uri>.
83 </p>
84
85 <p>
86 The two Installation CDs we currently provide are:
87 </p>
88
89 <ul>
90 <li>
91 The Gentoo Minimal Installation CD, a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which
92 sole purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue
93 with the Gentoo installation.
94 </li>
95 <li>
96 The Gentoo Universal Installation CD, a bootable CD with the same abilities
97 as the Minimal Installation CD. Additionally, it contains several stage3
98 tarballs (optimized for the individual subarchitectures).
99 </li>
100 </ul>
101
102 <p>
103 To help you decide which Installation CD you need, we have written down the
104 major advantages and disadvantages of each Installation CD.
105 </p>
106 -->
107
108 </body>
109 </subsection>
110 <subsection>
111 <title>Gentoo's Minimal Installation CD</title>
112 <body>
113
114 <p>
115 The Minimal Installation CD is called <c><keyval id="min-cd-name"/></c> and
116 takes up only 47 MB of diskspace. You must use this Installation CD to install
117 Gentoo, and you need a working Internet connection.
118 </p>
119 <!--
120 <table>
121 <tr>
122 <th>Minimal Installation CD</th>
123 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
124 </tr>
125 <tr>
126 <th>+</th>
127 <ti>Smallest download</ti>
128 </tr>
129 <tr>
130 <th>-</th>
131 <ti>
132 Contains no stage3 tarball, no Portage snapshot, no prebuilt packages and is
133 therefore not suitable for networkless installation
134 </ti>
135 </tr>
136 </table>
137
138 </body>
139 </subsection>
140 <subsection>
141 <title>Gentoo's Universal Installation CD</title>
142 <body>
143
144 <p>
145 The Universal Installation CD is called <c>install-alpha-universal-2008.0.iso</c>
146 and consumes about 316 MB on a CD. You can use this Installation CD to install
147 Gentoo, and you can even use it to install Gentoo without a working internet
148 connection, just in case you want to bring Gentoo to another PC than the one
149 you are currently installing Gentoo on :)
150 </p>
151
152 <table>
153 <tr>
154 <th>Universal Installation CD</th>
155 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
156 </tr>
157 <tr>
158 <ti>+</ti>
159 <ti>
160 Contains everything you need. You can even install without a network
161 connection.
162 </ti>
163 </tr>
164 <tr>
165 <ti>-</ti>
166 <ti>
167 Huge download
168 </ti>
169 </tr>
170 </table>
171
172 </body>
173 </subsection>
174
175 <subsection>
176 <title>Other CDs</title>
177 <body>
178
179 <p>
180 You might find a Package CD on one of our mirrors. This CD is not an
181 Installation CD but an additional resource that can be exploited during a
182 networkless installation. It contains prebuilt packages (also known as the GRP
183 set) that allow you to easily and quickly install additional applications
184 (such as OpenOffice.org, KDE, GNOME, ...) immediately after the networkless
185 Gentoo installation.
186 </p>
187
188 <p>
189 If you intend to use the Packages CD to quickly install additional software,
190 make sure that you use the same subarchitecture as the stage3 tarball you use.
191 </p>
192 -->
193 </body>
194 </subsection>
195 <subsection>
196 <title>The Stage3 Tarball</title>
197 <body>
198
199 <p>
200 A stage3 tarball is an archive containing a minimal Gentoo environment, suitable
201 to continue the Gentoo installation using the instructions in this manual.
202 Previously, the Gentoo Handbook described the installation using one of three
203 stage tarballs. While Gentoo still offers stage1 and stage2 tarballs, the
204 official installation method uses the stage3 tarball. If you are interested in
205 performing a Gentoo installation using a stage1 or stage2 tarball, please read
206 the Gentoo FAQ on <uri link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo
207 Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</uri>
208 </p>
209
210 </body>
211 </subsection>
212 </section>
213 <!-- STOP -->
214 <section>
215 <title>Download, Burn and Boot a Gentoo Installation CD</title>
216 <subsection>
217 <title>Downloading and Burning the Installation CDs</title>
218 <body>
219
220 <p>
221 You have chosen to use a Gentoo Installation CD. We'll first start by
222 downloading and burning the chosen Installation CD. We previously discussed
223 the several available Installation CDs, but where can you find them?
224 </p>
225
226 <p>
227 You can download any of the Installation CDs (and, if you want to, a Packages CD
228 as well) from one of our <uri link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri>. The
229 Installation CDs are located in the <path><keyval
230 id="release-dir"/>installcd</path> directory.
231 </p>
232
233 <p>
234 Inside that directory you'll find ISO files. Those are full CD images which you
235 can write on a CD-R.
236 </p>
237
238 <p>
239 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can check
240 its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
241 <path><keyval id="min-cd-name"/>.DIGESTS</path>). You can check the MD5 checksum
242 with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
243 link="http://www.etree.org/md5com.html">md5sum</uri> for Windows.
244 </p>
245
246 <p>
247 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
248 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
249 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
250 </p>
251
252 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
253 $ <i>gpg --keyserver subkeys.pgp.net --recv-keys 17072058</i>
254 </pre>
255
256 <p>
257 Now verify the signature:
258 </p>
259
260 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
261 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
262 </pre>
263
264 <p>
265 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
266 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
267 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
268 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
269 </p>
270
271 <ul>
272 <li>
273 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc &lt;downloaded iso
274 file&gt;</c> (replace <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's
275 device path).
276 </li>
277 <li>
278 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>. Then you can locate
279 your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click <c>Start</c>.
280 </li>
281 </ul>
282
283 </body>
284 </subsection>
285 <subsection>
286 <title>Booting the Installation CD</title>
287 <body>
288
289 <p>
290 When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
291 firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
292 are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
293 Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
294 </p>
295
296 <p>
297 SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
298 operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARC
299 is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
300 an operating environment for Windows NT. You can find a
301 <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/SRM-HOWTO/">detailed guide</uri> on
302 using SRM over at the Alpha Linux website.
303 </p>
304
305 <p>
306 If your Alpha system supports both SRM and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
307 should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
308 instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
309 are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
310 will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
311 </p>
312
313 <p>
314 Now to boot an Alpha Installation CD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the
315 system. You can use SRM to boot the Installation CD. If you cannot do that, you
316 will have to use <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already,
317 use one of the precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
318 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
319 </p>
320
321 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
322 <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
323 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
324 dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
325 <comment>(...)</comment>
326 <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
327 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
328 <comment>(If you need serial console support)</comment>
329 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 2</i>
330 </pre>
331
332 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
333 <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
334 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.6 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_6.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs cdroot</i>
335 <comment>(If you need serial console support)</comment>
336 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:/boot/gentoo_2.6 initrd=/boot/gentoo_2_6.igz root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc looptype=zisofs loop=/zisofs console=ttyS0 cdroot</i>
337 </pre>
338
339 <p>
340 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
341 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
342 started on by pressing Alt-F1.
343 </p>
344
345 <p>
346 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
347 </p>
348
349 </body>
350 </subsection>
351 <subsection id="hardware">
352 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
353 <body>
354
355 <p>
356 When the Installation CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
357 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
358 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases it may
359 not auto-load the kernel
360 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
361 hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
362 </p>
363
364 <p>
365 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
366 certain kinds of network interfaces):
367 </p>
368
369 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
370 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
371 </pre>
372
373 </body>
374 </subsection>
375 <subsection>
376 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
377 <body>
378
379 <p>
380 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
381 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
382 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
383 more precise impression):
384 </p>
385
386 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
387 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
388 </pre>
389
390 <p>
391 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
392 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
393 disk):
394 </p>
395
396 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
397 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment>
398 # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
399 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment>
400 # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
401 </pre>
402
403 </body>
404 </subsection>
405 <subsection id="useraccounts">
406 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
407 <body>
408
409 <p>
410 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
411 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
412 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
413 the root password.
414 </p>
415
416 <p>
417 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
418 </p>
419
420 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
421 # <i>passwd</i>
422 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
423 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
424 </pre>
425
426 <p>
427 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
428 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
429 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
430 </p>
431
432 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
433 # <i>useradd -m -G users john</i>
434 # <i>passwd john</i>
435 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
436 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
437 </pre>
438
439 <p>
440 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
441 <c>su</c>:
442 </p>
443
444 <pre caption="Changing user id">
445 # <i>su - john</i>
446 </pre>
447
448 </body>
449 </subsection>
450 <subsection>
451 <title>Optional: Viewing Documentation while Installing</title>
452 <body>
453
454 <p>
455 If you want to view the Gentoo Handbook (either from-CD or online) during the
456 installation, make sure you have created a user account (see <uri
457 link="#useraccounts">Optional: User Accounts</uri>). Then press <c>Alt-F2</c> to
458 go to a new terminal and log in.
459 </p>
460
461 <p>
462 If you want to view the documentation on the CD you can immediately run
463 <c>lynx</c> to read it:
464 </p>
465
466 <pre caption="Viewing the on-CD documentation">
467 # <i>lynx /mnt/cdrom/docs/html/index.html</i>
468 </pre>
469
470 <p>
471 However, it is preferred that you use the online Gentoo Handbook as it will be
472 more recent than the one provided on the CD. You can view it using <c>lynx</c>
473 as well, but only after having completed the <e>Configuring your Network</e>
474 chapter (otherwise you won't be able to go on the Internet to view the
475 document):
476 </p>
477
478 <pre caption="Viewing the Online Documentation">
479 # <i>lynx http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/handbook/<keyval id="online-book"/></i>
480 </pre>
481
482 <p>
483 You can go back to your original terminal by pressing <c>Alt-F1</c>.
484 </p>
485
486 </body>
487 </subsection>
488 <subsection>
489 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
490 <body>
491
492 <p>
493 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
494 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
495 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
496 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
497 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
498 </p>
499
500 <p>
501 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
502 </p>
503
504 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
505 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
506 </pre>
507
508 <p>
509 To be able to use sshd, you first need to set up your networking. Continue with
510 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
511 </p>
512
513 </body>
514 </subsection>
515 </section>
516 </sections>

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