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#53032 - Move out burning instructions to the Gentoo FAQ. Keep the cdrecord/k3b instructions though

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-alpha-medium.xml,v 1.8 2004/05/09 12:30:05 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>Introduction</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 Before we start, we first list what hardware requirements you need to
18 successfully install Gentoo on your box. This of course depends on your
19 architecture.
20 </p>
21
22 </body>
23 </subsection>
24 <subsection>
25 <title>The Alpha Architecture</title>
26 <body>
27
28 <p>
29 Check the following requirements before you
30 continue with the Gentoo installation:
31 </p>
32
33 <ul>
34 <li>
35 You need at least 1 Gb of free disk space
36 </li>
37 <li>
38 For the <e>Alpha architecture</e>, you should check with the <uri
39 link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/FAQ-5.html">Alpha/Linux FAQ</uri>
40 </li>
41 </ul>
42
43 </body>
44 </subsection>
45 </section>
46 <section>
47 <title>Make your Choice</title>
48 <subsection>
49 <title>Introduction</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <p>
53 Still interested in trying out Gentoo? Well, then it is now time to
54 choose the installation medium you want to use. Yes, you have the
55 choice, no, they are not all equal, and yes, the result is always the same: a
56 Gentoo base system.
57 </p>
58
59 <p>
60 The installation media we will describe are:
61 </p>
62
63 <ul>
64 <li>The Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</li>
65 </ul>
66
67 <p>
68 Before we continue, let's explain our three-stage installation.
69 </p>
70
71 </body>
72 </subsection>
73 <subsection>
74 <title>The Three Stages</title>
75 <body>
76
77 <p>
78 Gentoo Linux can be installed using one of three <e>stage</e> tarball files.
79 The one you choose depends on how much of the system you want to compile
80 yourself. The <e>stage1</e> tarball is used when you want to bootstrap and
81 build the entire system from scratch. The <e>stage2</e> tarball is used for
82 building the entire system from a bootstrapped &quot;semi-compiled&quot; state.
83 The <e>stage3</e> tarball already contains a basic Gentoo Linux system that has
84 been built for you.
85 </p>
86
87 <p>
88 Now what stage do you have to choose?
89 </p>
90
91 <p>
92 Starting from a <e>stage1</e> allows you to have total control over the
93 optimization settings and optional build-time functionality that is
94 initially enabled on your system. This makes <e>stage1</e> installs good for
95 power users who know what they are doing. It is also a great
96 installation method for those who would like to know more about the
97 inner workings of Gentoo Linux.
98 </p>
99
100 <p>
101 A <e>stage1</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
102 Internet connection.
103 </p>
104
105 <table>
106 <tr>
107 <th>Stage1</th>
108 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
109 </tr>
110 <tr>
111 <th>+</th>
112 <ti>
113 Allows you to have total control over the optimization settings and optional
114 build-time functionality that is initially enabled on your system
115 </ti>
116 </tr>
117 <tr>
118 <th>+</th>
119 <ti>Suitable for powerusers that know what they are doing</ti>
120 </tr>
121 <tr>
122 <th>+</th>
123 <ti>Allows you to learn more about the inner workings of Gentoo</ti>
124 </tr>
125 <tr>
126 <th>-</th>
127 <ti>Takes a long time to finish the installation</ti>
128 </tr>
129 <tr>
130 <th>-</th>
131 <ti>
132 If you don't intend to tweak the settings, it is probably a waste of time
133 </ti>
134 </tr>
135 <tr>
136 <th>-</th>
137 <ti>
138 Not suitable for networkless installations
139 </ti>
140 </tr>
141 </table>
142
143 <p>
144 <e>Stage2</e> installs allow you to skip the bootstrap process and doing this
145 is fine if you are happy with the optimization settings that we chose
146 for your particular <e>stage2</e> tarball.
147 </p>
148
149 <p>
150 A <e>stage2</e> installation can only be performed when you have a working
151 Internet connection.
152 </p>
153
154 <table>
155 <tr>
156 <th>Stage2</th>
157 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
158 </tr>
159 <tr>
160 <th>+</th>
161 <ti>You don't need to bootstrap</ti>
162 </tr>
163 <tr>
164 <th>+</th>
165 <ti>Faster than starting with stage1</ti>
166 </tr>
167 <tr>
168 <th>+</th>
169 <ti>You can still tweak your settings</ti>
170 </tr>
171 <tr>
172 <th>-</th>
173 <ti>You cannot tweak as much as with a stage1</ti>
174 </tr>
175 <tr>
176 <th>-</th>
177 <ti>It's not the fastest way to install Gentoo</ti>
178 </tr>
179 <tr>
180 <th>-</th>
181 <ti>You have to accept the optimizations we chose for the bootstrap</ti>
182 </tr>
183 <tr>
184 <th>-</th>
185 <ti>
186 Not suitable for networkless installations
187 </ti>
188 </tr>
189 </table>
190
191 <p>
192 Choosing to go with a <e>stage3</e> allows for the fastest install of Gentoo
193 Linux, but also means that your base system will have the optimization
194 settings that we chose for you (which to be honest, are good settings
195 and were carefully chosen to enhance performance while maintaining
196 stability). <e>stage3</e> is also required if you want to install Gentoo using
197 prebuilt packages or without a network connection.
198 </p>
199
200 <table>
201 <tr>
202 <th>Stage3</th>
203 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
204 </tr>
205 <tr>
206 <th>+</th>
207 <ti>Fastest way to get a Gentoo base system</ti>
208 </tr>
209 <tr>
210 <th>+</th>
211 <ti>Suitable for networkless installations</ti>
212 </tr>
213 <tr>
214 <th>-</th>
215 <ti>You cannot tweak the base system - it's built already</ti>
216 </tr>
217 <tr>
218 <th>-</th>
219 <ti>You cannot brag about having used stage1 or stage2</ti>
220 </tr>
221 </table>
222
223 <p>
224 Write down (or remember) what stage you want to use. You need this later when
225 you decide what LiveCD (or other installation medium) you want to use. You might
226 be interested to know that, if you decide to use different optimization settings
227 after having installed Gentoo, you will be able to recompile your entire system
228 with the new optimization settings.
229 </p>
230
231 <p>
232 Now take a look at the available installation media.
233 </p>
234
235 </body>
236 </subsection>
237 <subsection>
238 <title>The Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</title>
239 <body>
240
241 <p>
242 The <e>Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</e> is a bootable CD which contain a
243 self-sustained Gentoo environment. It allows you to boot Linux from the CD.
244 During the boot process your hardware is detected and the appropriate drivers
245 are loaded. It is maintained by Gentoo developers.
246 </p>
247
248 <p>
249 The <e>Gentoo Alpha LiveCD</e> is a small, no-nonsense, bootable CD which sole
250 purpose is to boot the system, prepare the networking and continue with the
251 Gentoo installation. It does not contain any stages (or, in some cases, a
252 single stage1 file), source code or precompiled packages. For example the
253 alpha variant of this LiveCD can be found in the
254 <path>releases/1.4_rc1/alpha</path> subdirectory and is called
255 <c>gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2</c>.
256 </p>
257
258 </body>
259 </subsection>
260 </section>
261 <section>
262 <title>Download, Burn and Boot the Gentoo LiveCD</title>
263 <subsection>
264 <title>Downloading and Burning the LiveCDs</title>
265 <body>
266
267 <p>
268 You have chosen to use a Gentoo LiveCD (if not, then you are reading the
269 wrong document). We'll first start by downloading and burning the chosen
270 LiveCD.
271 </p>
272
273 <p>
274 Visit one of our <uri
275 link="/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirrors</uri> and go to
276 <path>releases/1.4rc1/alpha</path> which is where the LiveCD(s) of your choice
277 are located. Inside that directory you'll find so-called ISO-files. Those are
278 full CD images which you can write on a CD-R.
279 </p>
280
281 <p>
282 In case you wonder if your downloaded file is corrupted or not, you can
283 check its MD5 checksum and compare it with the MD5 checksum we provide (such as
284 <path>gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2.md5sum</path>). You can check the MD5
285 checksum with the <c>md5sum</c> tool under Linux/Unix or <uri
286 link="http://www.md5summer.org">md5summer</uri> for Windows.
287 </p>
288
289 <p>
290 Once downloaded, decompress the ISO file (as it is stored in a compressed format
291 using the Burrows-Wheeler text compression algorithm) using <c>bunzip2</c> (on
292 Unix/Linux systems):
293 </p>
294
295 <pre caption="Decompressing the iso.bz2 file">
296 # <i>bunzip2 gentoo-alpha-1.4rc1-test3.iso.bz2</i>
297 </pre>
298
299 <p>
300 Another way to check the validity of the downloaded file is to use GnuPG to
301 verify the cryptographic signature that we provide (the file ending with
302 <path>.asc</path>). Download the signature file and obtain the public key:
303 </p>
304
305 <pre caption="Obtaining the public key">
306 $ <i>gpg --keyserver pgp.mit.edu --recv-keys 19462D47</i>
307 </pre>
308
309 <p>
310 Now verify the signature:
311 </p>
312
313 <pre caption="Verify the cryptographic signature">
314 $ <i>gpg --verify &lt;signature file&gt; &lt;downloaded iso&gt;</i>
315 <comment>(If everything goes well, you should see something like this:)</comment>
316 gpg: Signature made Mon Apr 19 18:54:40 2004 EDT using DSA key ID 19462D47
317 gpg: Good signature from "John Davis (Gentoo Linux Developer) &lt;zhen@gentoo.org&gt;"
318 gpg: aka "Gentoo Linux Release Engineering &lt;releng@gentoo.org&gt;"
319 </pre>
320
321 <p>
322 To burn the downloaded ISO(s), you have to select raw-burning. How you
323 do this is highly program-dependent. We will discuss <c>cdrecord</c> and
324 <c>K3B</c> here; more information can be found in our <uri
325 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#isoburning">Gentoo FAQ</uri>.
326 </p>
327
328 <ul>
329 <li>
330 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
331 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
332 by the path to the ISO file :)
333 </li>
334 <li>
335 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
336 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
337 <c>Start</c>.
338 </li>
339 </ul>
340
341 </body>
342 </subsection>
343 <subsection>
344 <title>Booting the Alpha LiveCD(s)</title>
345 <body>
346
347 <p>
348 When your Alpha is powered on, the first thing that gets started is the
349 firmware. It is loosely synonymous with the BIOS software on PC systems. There
350 are two types of firmware on Alpha systems: SRM (<e>Systems Reference
351 Manual</e>) and ARC (<e>Advanced Risc Console</e>).
352 </p>
353
354 <p>
355 SRM is based on the Alpha Console Subsystem specification, which provides an
356 operating environment for OpenVMS, Tru64 UNIX, and Linux operating systems. ARM
357 is based on the Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) specification, which provides
358 an operating environment for Windows NT.
359 </p>
360
361 <p>
362 If your Alpha system supports both SRC and ARCs (ARC, AlphaBIOS, ARCSBIOS) you
363 should follow <uri link="http://www.alphalinux.org/faq/x31.html">these
364 instructions</uri> for switching to SRM. If your system already uses SRM, you
365 are all set. If your system can only use ARCs (Ruffian, nautilus, xl, etc.) you
366 will need to choose <c>MILO</c> later on when we are talking about bootloaders.
367 </p>
368
369 <p>
370 Now to boot an Alpha LiveCD, put the CD-ROM in the tray and reboot the system.
371 You can use SRM to boot the LiveCD. If you cannot do that, you will have to use
372 <c>MILO</c>. If you don't have <c>MILO</c> installed already, use one of the
373 precompiled <c>MILO</c> images available on <uri
374 link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~taviso/milo/">taviso's homepage</uri>.
375 </p>
376
377 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using SRM">
378 <comment>(List available hardware drives)</comment>
379 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>show device</i>
380 dkb0.0.1.4.0 DKB0 TOSHIBA CDROM
381 <comment>(...)</comment>
382 <comment>(Substitute dkb0 with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
383 &gt;&gt;&gt; <i>boot dkb0 -flags 0</i>
384 </pre>
385
386 <pre caption="Booting a CD-ROM using MILO">
387 <comment>(Substitute hdb with your CD-ROM drive device)</comment>
388 MILO&gt; <i>boot hdb:boot/vmlinuz initrd=initrd.img root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc</i>
389 </pre>
390
391 <p>
392 You should have a root ("#") prompt on the current console and can also switch
393 to other consoles by pressing Alt-F2, Alt-F3 and Alt-F4. Get back to the one you
394 started on by pressing Alt-F1.
395 </p>
396
397 <p>
398 Now continue with <uri link="#hardware">Extra Hardware Configuration</uri>.
399 </p>
400
401 </body>
402 </subsection>
403 <subsection id="hardware">
404 <title>Extra Hardware Configuration</title>
405 <body>
406
407 <p>
408 When the Live CD boots, it tries to detect all your hardware devices and
409 loads the appropriate kernel modules to support your hardware. In the
410 vast majority of cases, it does a very good job. However, in some cases (the
411 SPARC LiveCDs don't even do autodetection), it may not auto-load the kernel
412 modules you need. If the PCI auto-detection missed some of your system's
413 hardware, you will have to load the appropriate kernel modules manually.
414 </p>
415
416 <p>
417 In the next example we try to load the <c>8139too</c> module (support for
418 certain kinds of network interfaces):
419 </p>
420
421 <pre caption="Loading kernel modules">
422 # <i>modprobe 8139too</i>
423 </pre>
424
425 </body>
426 </subsection>
427 <subsection>
428 <title>Optional: Tweaking Hard Disk Performance</title>
429 <body>
430
431 <p>
432 If you are an advanced user, you might want to tweak the IDE hard disk
433 performance using <c>hdparm</c>. With the <c>-tT</c> options you can
434 test the performance of your disk (execute it several times to get a
435 more precise impression):
436 </p>
437
438 <pre caption="Testing disk performance">
439 # <i>hdparm -tT /dev/hda</i>
440 </pre>
441
442 <p>
443 To tweak, you can use any of the following examples (or experiment
444 yourself) which use <path>/dev/hda</path> as disk (substitute with your
445 disk):
446 </p>
447
448 <pre caption="Tweaking hard disk performance">
449 <comment>Activate DMA:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 /dev/hda</i>
450 <comment>Activate DMA + Safe Performance-enhancing Options:</comment> # <i>hdparm -d 1 -A 1 -m 16 -u 1 -a 64 /dev/hda</i>
451 </pre>
452
453 </body>
454 </subsection>
455 <subsection>
456 <title>Optional: User Accounts</title>
457 <body>
458
459 <p>
460 If you plan on giving other people access to your installation
461 environment or you want to chat using <c>irssi</c> without root privileges (for
462 security reasons), you need to create the necessary user accounts and change
463 the root password.
464 </p>
465
466 <p>
467 To change the root password, use the <c>passwd</c> utility:
468 </p>
469
470 <pre caption="Changing the root password">
471 # <i>passwd</i>
472 New password: <comment>(Enter your new password)</comment>
473 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter your password)</comment>
474 </pre>
475
476 <p>
477 To create a user account, we first enter their credentials, followed by
478 its password. We use <c>useradd</c> and <c>passwd</c> for these tasks.
479 In the next example, we create a user called &quot;john&quot;.
480 </p>
481
482 <pre caption="Creating a user account">
483 # <i>useradd john</i>
484 # <i>passwd john</i>
485 New password: <comment>(Enter john's password)</comment>
486 Re-enter password: <comment>(Re-enter john's password)</comment>
487 </pre>
488
489 <p>
490 You can change your user id from root to the newly created user by using
491 <c>su</c>:
492 </p>
493
494 <pre caption="Changing user id">
495 # <i>su john -</i>
496 </pre>
497
498 </body>
499 </subsection>
500 <subsection>
501 <title>Optional: Starting the SSH Daemon</title>
502 <body>
503
504 <p>
505 If you want to allow other users to access your computer during the
506 Gentoo installation (perhaps because those users are going to help you
507 install Gentoo, or even do it for you), you need to create a user
508 account for them and perhaps even provide them with your root password
509 (<e>only</e> do that <e>if</e> you <b>fully trust</b> that user).
510 </p>
511
512 <p>
513 To fire up the SSH daemon, execute the following command:
514 </p>
515
516 <pre caption="Starting the SSH daemon">
517 # <i>/etc/init.d/sshd start</i>
518 </pre>
519
520 <p>
521 To be able to use sshd, you first need to setup your networking. Continue with
522 the chapter on <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=3">Configuring your Network</uri>.
523 </p>
524
525 </body>
526 </subsection>
527 </section>
528 </sections>

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