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initial import of arm handbook

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-x86-kernel.xml,v 1.52 2005/07/04 15:57:32 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>7.1</version>
12 <date>2006-08-30</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then copy
21 it to <path>/etc/localtime</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
24 </p>
25
26 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
27 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
28 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
29 # <i>cp /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
30 </pre>
31
32 </body>
33 </section>
34 <section>
35 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
36 <subsection>
37 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
42 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
43 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
44 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
45 Guide</uri>.
46 </p>
47
48 <p>
49 For ARM systems, the available kernels are <c>vanilla-sources</c> (the default
50 kernel source as distributed from <uri link="http://kernel.org/">kernel.org</uri>
51 and <c>gentoo-sources</c> (contains additional patches for performance and
52 stability).
53 </p>
54
55 <p>
56 Choose your kernel source and install it using <c>emerge</c>. The
57 <c>USE="-doc"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 or other
58 dependencies at this point. <c>USE="symlink"</c> is not necessary for a new
59 install, but ensures proper creation of the <path>/usr/src/linux</path>
60 symlink.
61 </p>
62
63 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
64 # <i>USE="-doc symlink" emerge gentoo-sources</i>
65 </pre>
66
67 <p>
68 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
69 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
70 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
71 Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
72 </p>
73
74 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
75 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
76 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
77 </pre>
78
79 </body>
80 </subsection>
81 </section>
82 <section id="manual">
83 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
84 <subsection>
85 <title>Introduction</title>
86 <body>
87
88 <p>
89 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
90 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
91 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
92 </p>
93
94 <p>
95 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
96 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
97 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
98 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
99 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
100 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
101 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
102 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
103 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
104 </p>
105
106 <p>
107 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
108 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
109 </p>
110
111 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
112 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
113 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
114 </pre>
115
116 <p>
117 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
118 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
119 properly without additional tweaks).
120 </p>
121
122 </body>
123 </subsection>
124 <subsection>
125 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
126 <body>
127
128 <p>
129 Due to the highly specific nature of the embedded, we'll cover known
130 configurations for boards here. If your machine is not listed, then you should
131 visit the respective community website to figure out how to properly configure
132 your kernel.
133 </p>
134
135 <p>
136 Regardless of your machine, you should make sure to activate the use of
137 development and experimental code/drivers. You need this, otherwise some very
138 important code/drivers won't show up:
139 </p>
140
141 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
142 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
143 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
144 </pre>
145
146 <p>
147 Please select your machine from the list below to jump to the configuration
148 section.
149 </p>
150
151 <ul>
152 <li><uri link="#netwinder">NetWinder</uri></li>
153 </ul>
154
155 </body>
156 </subsection>
157 </section>
158 <section id="netwinder">
159 <title>NetWinder configuration options</title>
160 <body>
161
162 <p>
163 Remember that EXT2 support is required for the boot partition as that is the
164 only filesystem that the bootloader can read reliably. Otherwise, the only
165 filesystem that has been tested is EXT3 but your welcome to try your luck with
166 the others ;).
167 </p>
168
169 <p>
170 You should start off with running <c>make netwinder_defconfig</c>.
171 </p>
172
173 <pre caption="NetWinder configuration options">
174 <comment>Required options</comment>
175 System Type ---&gt;
176 ARM system type (<i>FootBridge</i>) ---&gt;
177 Footbridge Implementations ---&gt;
178 [*] NetWinder
179
180 Floating point emulation ---&gt;
181 [*] NWFPE math emulation
182
183 File systems ---&gt;
184 [*] Second extended fs support
185 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
186 [*] /proc file system support
187 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
188
189 Device Drivers ---&gt;
190 ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
191 [*] ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support
192 [*] Enhanced IDE/MFM/RLL disk/cdrom/tape/floppy support
193 [*] Include IDE/ATA-2 DISK support
194 --- IDE chipset support/bugfixes
195 [*] PCI IDE chipset support
196 [*] Winbond SL82c105 support
197 [*] Generic PCI bus-master DMA support
198 [*] Use PCI DMA by default when available
199
200 Network device support ---&gt;
201 [*] Network device support
202 Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit) ---&gt;
203 [*] Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit)
204 Tulip family network device support ---&gt;
205 [*] "Tulip" family network device support
206 [*] DECchip Tulip (dc2114x) PCI support
207 [*] Use PCI shared mem for NIC registers
208 [*] Use NAPI RX polling
209 [*] EISA, VLB, PCI and on board controllers
210 [*] PCI NE2000 and clones support
211
212 Character devices ---&gt;
213 Serial drivers ---&gt;
214 [*] 8250/16550 and compatible serial support
215 [*] Console on 8250/16550 and compatible serial port
216 --- Non-8250 serial port support
217 [*] DC21285 serial port support
218 [*] Console on DC21285 serial port
219 Watchdog Cards ---&gt;
220 [*] Watchdog Timer Support
221 [*] NetWinder WB83C977 watchdog
222 [*] NetWinder thermometer support
223 [*] NetWinder Button
224 [*] Reboot Using Button
225
226 <comment>Recommended options</comment>
227 Kernel Features ---&gt;
228 [*] Preemptible Kernel
229 [*] Timer and CPU usage LEDs
230 [*] CPU usage LED
231
232 File systems ---&gt;
233 [*] Ext3 journalling file system support
234
235 Device Drivers ---&gt;
236 Input device support ---&gt;
237 [*] Keyboards ---&gt;
238 [*] AT keyboard
239 [*] Mouse ---&gt;
240 [*] PS/2 mouse
241
242 Graphics support ---&gt;
243 [*] Support for frame buffer devices
244 [*] Enable firmware EDID
245 [*] CyberPro 2000/2010/5000 support
246 Logo configuration ---&gt;
247 [*] Bootup logo
248 [*] Standard 224-color Linux logo
249
250 Sound ---&gt;
251 [*] Sound card support
252 Open Sound System ---&gt;
253 [*] Open Sound System
254 [*] OSS sound modules
255 [*] Yamaha FM synthesizer (YM3812/OPL-3) support
256 [*] Netwinder WaveArtist
257
258 <comment>You should only enable this to upgrade your flash</comment>
259 Device Drivers ---&gt;
260 Character devices ---&gt;
261 [*] NetWinder flash support
262 </pre>
263
264 <p>
265 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
266 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
267 </p>
268
269 </body>
270 </section>
271 <section id="compiling">
272 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
273 <body>
274
275 <p>
276 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
277 the configuration and start the compilation process:
278 </p>
279
280 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
281 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
282 </pre>
283
284 <p>
285 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
286 <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
287 choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
288 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
289 name and version of your kernel.
290 </p>
291
292 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
293 # <i>cp vmlinux.gz /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
294 </pre>
295
296 <p>
297 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
298 </p>
299
300 </body>
301 </section>
302 <section id="kernel_modules">
303 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
304 <subsection>
305 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
306 <body>
307
308 <p>
309 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
310 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
311 the modules too if you want.
312 </p>
313
314 <p>
315 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
316 forget to substitute <c><keyval id="kernel-version"/></c> with the version of
317 the kernel you just compiled:
318 </p>
319
320 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
321 # <i>find /lib/modules/<keyval id="kernel-version"/>/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
322 </pre>
323
324 <p>
325 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
326 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module name in it.
327 </p>
328
329 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
330 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
331 </pre>
332
333 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
334 3c59x
335 </pre>
336
337 <p>
338 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
339 your System</uri>.
340 </p>
341
342 </body>
343 </subsection>
344 </section>
345 </sections>

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