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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-arm-kernel.xml,v 1.3 2007/03/19 07:12:37 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>8.0</version>
12 <date>2007-05-07</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Timezone</title>
16 <body>
17
18 <p>
19 You first need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
20 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>. You then
21 set your timezone in <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>. Please avoid the
22 <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo/Etc/GMT*</path> timezones as their names do not
23 indicate the expected zones. For instance, <path>GMT-8</path> is in fact GMT+8.
24 </p>
25
26 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
27 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
28 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT)</comment>
29 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
30 TIMEZONE="GMT"
31 </pre>
32
33 </body>
34 </section>
35 <section>
36 <title>Installing the Sources</title>
37 <subsection>
38 <title>Choosing a Kernel</title>
39 <body>
40
41 <p>
42 The core around which all distributions are built is the Linux kernel. It is the
43 layer between the user programs and your system hardware. Gentoo provides its
44 users several possible kernel sources. A full listing with description is
45 available at the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">Gentoo Kernel
46 Guide</uri>.
47 </p>
48
49 <p>
50 For ARM systems, we will use <c>gentoo-sources</c> (contains additional patches
51 for performance and stability).
52 </p>
53
54 <p>
55 Now install it using <c>emerge</c>.
56 </p>
57
58 <pre caption="Installing a kernel source">
59 # <i>emerge gentoo-sources</i>
60 </pre>
61
62 <p>
63 When you take a look in <path>/usr/src</path> you should see a symlink called
64 <path>linux</path> pointing to your kernel source. In this case, the installed
65 kernel source points to <c>gentoo-sources-<keyval id="kernel-version"/></c>.
66 Your version may be different, so keep this in mind.
67 </p>
68
69 <pre caption="Viewing the kernel source symlink">
70 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux</i>
71 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 12 Oct 13 11:04 /usr/src/linux -&gt; linux-<keyval id="kernel-version"/>
72 </pre>
73
74 </body>
75 </subsection>
76 </section>
77 <section id="manual">
78 <title>Default: Manual Configuration</title>
79 <subsection>
80 <title>Introduction</title>
81 <body>
82
83 <p>
84 Manually configuring a kernel is often seen as the most difficult procedure a
85 Linux user ever has to perform. Nothing is less true -- after configuring a
86 couple of kernels you don't even remember that it was difficult ;)
87 </p>
88
89 <p>
90 However, one thing <e>is</e> true: you must know your system when you start
91 configuring a kernel manually. Most information can be gathered by emerging
92 pciutils (<c>emerge pciutils</c>) which contains <c>lspci</c>. You will now
93 be able to use <c>lspci</c> within the chrooted environment. You may safely
94 ignore any <e>pcilib</e> warnings (like pcilib: cannot open
95 /sys/bus/pci/devices) that <c>lspci</c> throws out. Alternatively, you can run
96 <c>lspci</c> from a <e>non-chrooted</e> environment. The results are the same.
97 You can also run <c>lsmod</c> to see what kernel modules the Installation CD
98 uses (it might provide you with a nice hint on what to enable).
99 </p>
100
101 <p>
102 Now go to your kernel source directory and execute <c>make menuconfig</c>. This
103 will fire up an ncurses-based configuration menu.
104 </p>
105
106 <pre caption="Invoking menuconfig">
107 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
108 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
109 </pre>
110
111 <p>
112 You will be greeted with several configuration sections. We'll first list some
113 options you must activate (otherwise Gentoo will not function, or not function
114 properly without additional tweaks).
115 </p>
116
117 </body>
118 </subsection>
119 <subsection>
120 <title>Activating Required Options</title>
121 <body>
122
123 <p>
124 Due to the highly specific nature of the embedded, we'll cover known
125 configurations for boards here. If your machine is not listed, then you should
126 visit the respective community website to figure out how to properly configure
127 your kernel.
128 </p>
129
130 <p>
131 Regardless of your machine, you should make sure to activate the use of
132 development and experimental code/drivers. You need this, otherwise some very
133 important code/drivers won't show up:
134 </p>
135
136 <pre caption="Selecting experimental code/drivers, General setup">
137 Code maturity level options ---&gt;
138 [*] Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers
139 </pre>
140
141 <p>
142 Please select your machine from the list below to jump to the configuration
143 section.
144 </p>
145
146 <ul>
147 <li><uri link="#netwinder">NetWinder</uri></li>
148 </ul>
149
150 </body>
151 </subsection>
152 </section>
153 <section id="netwinder">
154 <title>NetWinder configuration options</title>
155 <body>
156
157 <p>
158 Remember that EXT2 support is required for the boot partition as that is the
159 only filesystem that the bootloader can read reliably. Otherwise, the only
160 filesystem that has been tested is EXT3 but your welcome to try your luck with
161 the others ;).
162 </p>
163
164 <pre caption="NetWinder configuration options">
165 <comment>First generate a default config</comment>
166 # <i>make netwinder_defconfig</i>
167
168 <comment>Required options</comment>
169 System Type ---&gt;
170 ARM system type (FootBridge) ---&gt;
171 (X) FootBridge
172 Footbridge Implementations ---&gt;
173 [*] NetWinder
174
175 Floating point emulation ---&gt;
176 [*] NWFPE math emulation
177
178 File systems ---&gt;
179 [*] Second extended fs support
180 Pseudo Filesystems ---&gt;
181 [*] /proc file system support
182 [*] Virtual memory file system support (former shm fs)
183
184 Device Drivers ---&gt;
185 ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support ---&gt;
186 [*] ATA/ATAPI/MFM/RLL support
187 [*] Enhanced IDE/MFM/RLL disk/cdrom/tape/floppy support
188 [*] Include IDE/ATA-2 DISK support
189 --- IDE chipset support/bugfixes
190 [*] PCI IDE chipset support
191 [*] Winbond SL82c105 support
192 [*] Generic PCI bus-master DMA support
193 [*] Use PCI DMA by default when available
194
195 Network device support ---&gt;
196 [*] Network device support
197 Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit) ---&gt;
198 [*] Ethernet (10 or 100Mbit)
199 Tulip family network device support ---&gt;
200 [*] "Tulip" family network device support
201 [*] DECchip Tulip (dc2114x) PCI support
202 [*] Use PCI shared mem for NIC registers
203 [*] Use NAPI RX polling
204 [*] EISA, VLB, PCI and on board controllers
205 [*] PCI NE2000 and clones support
206
207 Character devices ---&gt;
208 Serial drivers ---&gt;
209 [*] 8250/16550 and compatible serial support
210 [*] Console on 8250/16550 and compatible serial port
211 --- Non-8250 serial port support
212 [*] DC21285 serial port support
213 [*] Console on DC21285 serial port
214 Watchdog Cards ---&gt;
215 [*] Watchdog Timer Support
216 [*] NetWinder WB83C977 watchdog
217 [*] NetWinder thermometer support
218 [*] NetWinder Button
219 [*] Reboot Using Button
220
221 <comment>Recommended options</comment>
222 Kernel Features ---&gt;
223 [*] Preemptible Kernel
224 [*] Timer and CPU usage LEDs
225 [*] CPU usage LED
226
227 File systems ---&gt;
228 [*] Ext3 journalling file system support
229
230 Device Drivers ---&gt;
231 Input device support ---&gt;
232 [*] Keyboards ---&gt;
233 [*] AT keyboard
234 [*] Mouse ---&gt;
235 [*] PS/2 mouse
236
237 Graphics support ---&gt;
238 [*] Support for frame buffer devices
239 [*] Enable firmware EDID
240 [*] CyberPro 2000/2010/5000 support
241 Logo configuration ---&gt;
242 [*] Bootup logo
243 [*] Standard 224-color Linux logo
244
245 Sound ---&gt;
246 [*] Sound card support
247 Open Sound System ---&gt;
248 [*] Open Sound System
249 [*] OSS sound modules
250 [*] Yamaha FM synthesizer (YM3812/OPL-3) support
251 [*] Netwinder WaveArtist
252
253 <comment>You should only enable this to upgrade your flash</comment>
254 Device Drivers ---&gt;
255 Character devices ---&gt;
256 [*] NetWinder flash support
257 </pre>
258
259 <p>
260 When you've finished configuring the kernel, continue with <uri
261 link="#compiling">Compiling and Installing</uri>.
262 </p>
263
264 </body>
265 </section>
266 <section id="compiling">
267 <title>Compiling and Installing</title>
268 <body>
269
270 <p>
271 Now that your kernel is configured, it is time to compile and install it. Exit
272 the configuration and start the compilation process:
273 </p>
274
275 <pre caption="Compiling the kernel">
276 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
277 </pre>
278
279
280 <p>
281 When the kernel has finished compiling, copy the kernel image to
282 <path>/boot</path>. Use whatever name you feel is appropriate for your kernel
283 choice and remember it as you will need it later on when you configure your
284 bootloader. Remember to replace <c><keyval id="kernel-name"/></c> with the
285 name and version of your kernel.
286 </p>
287
288 <pre caption="Installing the kernel">
289 # <i>cp vmlinux.gz /boot/<keyval id="kernel-name"/></i>
290 </pre>
291
292 <p>
293 Now continue with <uri link="#kernel_modules">Kernel Modules</uri>.
294 </p>
295
296 </body>
297 </section>
298 <section id="kernel_modules">
299 <title>Kernel Modules</title>
300 <subsection>
301 <title>Configuring the Modules</title>
302 <body>
303
304 <p>
305 You should list the modules you want automatically loaded in
306 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path>. You can add extra options to
307 the modules too if you want.
308 </p>
309
310 <p>
311 To view all available modules, run the following <c>find</c> command. Don't
312 forget to substitute <c><keyval id="kernel-version"/></c> with the version of
313 the kernel you just compiled:
314 </p>
315
316 <pre caption="Viewing all available modules">
317 # <i>find /lib/modules/<keyval id="kernel-version"/>/ -type f -iname '*.o' -or -iname '*.ko'</i>
318 </pre>
319
320 <p>
321 For instance, to automatically load the <c>3c59x.o</c> module, edit the
322 <path>kernel-2.6</path> file and enter the module name in it.
323 </p>
324
325 <pre caption="Editing /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
326 # <i>nano -w /etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</i>
327 </pre>
328
329 <pre caption="/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6">
330 3c59x
331 </pre>
332
333 <p>
334 Continue the installation with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=8">Configuring
335 your System</uri>.
336 </p>
337
338 </body>
339 </subsection>
340 </section>
341 </sections>

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