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#40203 - Fix issues with /etc/hosts

1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.22 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.21 2004/02/03 10:18:07 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.8
9 swift 1.2 <sections>
10 swift 1.1 <section>
11     <title>Filesystem Information</title>
12 swift 1.3 <subsection>
13     <title>What is fstab?</title>
14 swift 1.1 <body>
15    
16     <p>
17 swift 1.3 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19     (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20     (special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
21     etc.).
22 swift 1.1 </p>
23    
24     </body>
25 swift 1.3 </subsection>
26     <subsection>
27     <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
28     <body>
29    
30     <p>
31 swift 1.17 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
32 swift 1.9 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
33 swift 1.3 its own meaning:
34     </p>
35    
36     <ul>
37     <li>
38     The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39     file)
40     </li>
41     <li>
42     The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
43     mounted
44     </li>
45     <li>
46     The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47     </li>
48     <li>
49     The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50     wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51     you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 swift 1.9 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53 swift 1.3 </li>
54     <li>
55     The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56     be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57     </li>
58     <li>
59 swift 1.17 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60     filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61     The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62     (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63 swift 1.3 </li>
64     </ul>
65    
66     <p>
67     So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68     <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69     </p>
70    
71     <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73     </pre>
74    
75     <p>
76 swift 1.17 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77 swift 1.3 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78     <path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim.
79     </p>
80    
81     <p>
82     In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83     <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't
84     be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we
85     would write down:
86     </p>
87    
88     <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2
90     </pre>
91    
92     <p>
93     Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94     option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95     aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96     </p>
97    
98     <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
100     </pre>
101    
102     <p>
103     If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
104     <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
105     </p>
106    
107     <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
108     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
109     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
110     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111     </pre>
112    
113     <p>
114     To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
115 swift 1.7 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116 swift 1.3 partitions or drives, for those too):
117     </p>
118    
119     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
120     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
121     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123    
124     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125     none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
126    
127     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128     </pre>
129    
130     <p>
131     <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
132     removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
133     <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
134     </p>
135    
136     <p>
137     Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
138     SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path>
139     too:
140     </p>
141    
142     <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
143 swift 1.5 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
144     </pre>
145    
146     <p>
147     If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
148     </p>
149    
150     <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151     none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
152 swift 1.3 </pre>
153    
154     <p>
155     Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
156     </p>
157    
158     </body>
159     </subsection>
160 swift 1.2 </section>
161     <section>
162 swift 1.1 <title>Networking Information</title>
163 swift 1.3 <subsection>
164     <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
165     <body>
166    
167     <p>
168     One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite
169     easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate
170     name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can
171     be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
172     <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
173     </p>
174    
175     <p>
176     We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
177     </p>
178    
179     <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
180     # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
181     </pre>
182    
183     <p>
184     Second we set the domainname:
185     </p>
186    
187     <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
188     # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
189     </pre>
190    
191     <p>
192     If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
193     one), you need to define that one too:
194     </p>
195    
196     <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
197     # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
198 swift 1.12 </pre>
199    
200     <p>
201     Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
202     </p>
203    
204     <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
205     # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
206 swift 1.3 </pre>
207    
208     </body>
209     </subsection>
210     <subsection>
211     <title>Configuring your Network</title>
212     <body>
213    
214     <p>
215     Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
216     that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
217     just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
218     your Gentoo system permanently.
219     </p>
220    
221     <p>
222     All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
223     a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
224     networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
225     </p>
226    
227     <p>
228     First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
229     is used in this example):
230     </p>
231    
232     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
233     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
234     </pre>
235    
236     <p>
237     The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
238     syntax:
239     </p>
240    
241     <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
242     iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
243     </pre>
244    
245     <p>
246     If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
247 swift 1.21 to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
248     If you need to setup your network manually and you're
249 swift 1.3 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
250     link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
251     Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
252     </p>
253    
254     <p>
255 swift 1.17 So let us give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP
256 swift 1.3 (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway
257     192.168.0.1:
258     </p>
259    
260     <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
261     <comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
262     iface_eth0="dhcp"
263    
264     <comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
265     iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
266     gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
267     </pre>
268    
269     <p>
270     If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
271     like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
272     shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
273     </p>
274    
275     <p>
276     Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
277     </p>
278    
279     </body>
280     </subsection>
281     <subsection>
282     <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
283 swift 1.1 <body>
284    
285     <p>
286 swift 1.3 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
287     default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
288     the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
289     </p>
290    
291     <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
292     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
293     </pre>
294    
295     <p>
296     If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
297     <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
298     use <c>ln</c> to do this:
299 swift 1.1 </p>
300    
301 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
302     # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
303     # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
304     # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
305     </pre>
306    
307 swift 1.1 </body>
308 swift 1.3 </subsection>
309     <subsection>
310     <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
311     <body>
312    
313     <p>
314     You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
315     <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
316     for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
317     internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
318 swift 1.14 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
319 swift 1.3 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
320     </p>
321    
322     <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
323     # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
324     </pre>
325    
326     <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
327 swift 1.14 127.0.0.1 localhost
328 swift 1.22 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
329     192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
330     192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
331 swift 1.3 </pre>
332    
333     <p>
334     If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
335     resolution) a single line is sufficient:
336     </p>
337    
338     <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
339     127.0.0.1 localhost tux
340     </pre>
341    
342     <p>
343     Save and exit the editor to continue.
344     </p>
345    
346     <p>
347     If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
348 swift 1.20 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
349 swift 1.3 following topic on PCMCIA.
350     </p>
351    
352     </body>
353     </subsection>
354     <subsection>
355     <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
356     <body>
357    
358     <p>
359     PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package:
360     </p>
361    
362     <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
363 swift 1.10 # <i>emerge --usepkg pcmcia-cs</i>
364 swift 1.3 </pre>
365    
366     <p>
367 swift 1.19 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
368 swift 1.3 runlevel:
369     </p>
370    
371 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
372     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
373 swift 1.3 </pre>
374    
375     </body>
376     </subsection>
377 swift 1.2 </section>
378     <section>
379 swift 1.1 <title>System Information</title>
380     <body>
381    
382     <p>
383 swift 1.3 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
384     Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
385     </p>
386    
387     <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
388     # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
389     </pre>
390    
391     <p>
392     As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
393 swift 1.16 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
394     you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
395     your keyboard.
396     </p>
397    
398     <note>
399     Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
400     keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
401     </note>
402    
403     <p>
404     When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
405     continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
406 swift 1.1 </p>
407    
408     </body>
409     </section>
410 swift 1.2 </sections>

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