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Further continuation of the handbook -- progressing quickly :)

1 swift 1.2 <sections>
2 swift 1.1 <section>
3     <title>Timezone</title>
4     <body>
5    
6     <p>
7 swift 1.3 You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
8     located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
9     symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
10 swift 1.1 </p>
11    
12 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
13     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
14     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
15     # <i>ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
16     </pre>
17    
18 swift 1.1 </body>
19 swift 1.2 </section>
20     <section>
21 swift 1.1 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
22 swift 1.3 <subsection>
23     <title>What is fstab?</title>
24 swift 1.1 <body>
25    
26     <p>
27 swift 1.3 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
28     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
29     (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
30     (special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
31     etc.).
32 swift 1.1 </p>
33    
34     </body>
35 swift 1.3 </subsection>
36     <subsection>
37     <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
38     <body>
39    
40     <p>
41     <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six
42     fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
43     its own meaning:
44     </p>
45    
46     <ul>
47     <li>
48     The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
49     file)
50     </li>
51     <li>
52     The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
53     mounted
54     </li>
55     <li>
56     The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
57     </li>
58     <li>
59     The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
60     wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
61     you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
62     listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated.
63     </li>
64     <li>
65     The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
66     be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
67     </li>
68     <li>
69     The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should
70     be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem
71     should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case
72     a filesystem check isn't necessary).
73     </li>
74     </ul>
75    
76     <p>
77     So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
78     <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
79     </p>
80    
81     <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83     </pre>
84    
85     <p>
86     Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
87     partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
88     <path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim.
89     </p>
90    
91     <p>
92     In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
93     <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't
94     be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we
95     would write down:
96     </p>
97    
98     <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2
100     </pre>
101    
102     <p>
103     Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
104     option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
105     aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
106     </p>
107    
108     <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
109     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
110     </pre>
111    
112     <p>
113     If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
114     <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
115     </p>
116    
117     <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
118     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
119     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
120     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
121     </pre>
122    
123     <p>
124     To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
125     (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and ofcourse, if you have other
126     partitions or drives, for those too):
127     </p>
128    
129     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
130     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
131     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
132     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
133    
134     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
135     none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
136    
137     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
138     </pre>
139    
140     <p>
141     <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
142     removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
143     <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
144     </p>
145    
146     <p>
147     Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
148     SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path>
149     too:
150     </p>
151    
152     <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
153     none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
154     </pre>
155    
156     <p>
157     Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
158     </p>
159    
160     </body>
161     </subsection>
162 swift 1.2 </section>
163     <section>
164 swift 1.1 <title>Networking Information</title>
165 swift 1.3 <subsection>
166     <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
167     <body>
168    
169     <p>
170     One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite
171     easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate
172     name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can
173     be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
174     <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
175     </p>
176    
177     <p>
178     We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
179     </p>
180    
181     <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
182     # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
183     </pre>
184    
185     <p>
186     Second we set the domainname:
187     </p>
188    
189     <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
190     # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
191     </pre>
192    
193     <p>
194     If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
195     one), you need to define that one too:
196     </p>
197    
198     <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
199     # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
200     </pre>
201    
202     </body>
203     </subsection>
204     <subsection>
205     <title>Configuring your Network</title>
206     <body>
207    
208     <p>
209     Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
210     that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
211     just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
212     your Gentoo system permanently.
213     </p>
214    
215     <p>
216     All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
217     a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
218     networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
219     </p>
220    
221     <p>
222     First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
223     is used in this example):
224     </p>
225    
226     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
227     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
228     </pre>
229    
230     <p>
231     The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
232     syntax:
233     </p>
234    
235     <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
236     iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
237     </pre>
238    
239     <p>
240     If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
241     to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're
242     not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
243     link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
244     Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
245     </p>
246    
247     <p>
248     So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP
249     (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway
250     192.168.0.1:
251     </p>
252    
253     <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
254     <comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
255     iface_eth0="dhcp"
256    
257     <comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
258     iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
259     gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
260     </pre>
261    
262     <p>
263     If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
264     like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
265     shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
266     </p>
267    
268     <p>
269     Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
270     </p>
271    
272     </body>
273     </subsection>
274     <subsection>
275     <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
276 swift 1.1 <body>
277    
278     <p>
279 swift 1.3 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
280     default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
281     the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
282     </p>
283    
284     <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
285     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
286     </pre>
287    
288     <p>
289     If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
290     <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
291     use <c>ln</c> to do this:
292 swift 1.1 </p>
293    
294 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
295     # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
296     # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
297     # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
298     </pre>
299    
300 swift 1.1 </body>
301 swift 1.3 </subsection>
302     <subsection>
303     <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
304     <body>
305    
306     <p>
307     You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
308     <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
309     for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
310     internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
311     <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would
312     open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
313     </p>
314    
315     <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
316     # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
317     </pre>
318    
319     <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
320     127.0.0.1 localhost tux
321     192.168.0.5 jenny
322     192.168.0.56 benny
323     </pre>
324    
325     <p>
326     If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
327     resolution) a single line is sufficient:
328     </p>
329    
330     <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
331     127.0.0.1 localhost tux
332     </pre>
333    
334     <p>
335     Save and exit the editor to continue.
336     </p>
337    
338     <p>
339     If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
340     link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
341     following topic on PCMCIA.
342     </p>
343    
344     </body>
345     </subsection>
346     <subsection>
347     <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
348     <body>
349    
350     <p>
351     PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package:
352     </p>
353    
354     <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
355     # <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i>
356     </pre>
357    
358     <p>
359     When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e>
360     runlevel:
361     </p>
362    
363     <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
364     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
365     </pre>
366    
367     </body>
368     </subsection>
369 swift 1.2 </section>
370     <section>
371 swift 1.1 <title>System Information</title>
372     <body>
373    
374     <p>
375 swift 1.3 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
376     Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
377     </p>
378    
379     <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
380     # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
381     </pre>
382    
383     <p>
384     As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
385     configuration variables. When you're finished configuring
386     <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue.
387 swift 1.1 </p>
388    
389     </body>
390     </section>
391 swift 1.2 </sections>

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