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pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, ppc and amd64

1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.31 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.30 2004/03/21 10:21:35 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.8
9 swift 1.2 <sections>
10 swift 1.1 <section>
11     <title>Filesystem Information</title>
12 swift 1.3 <subsection>
13     <title>What is fstab?</title>
14 swift 1.1 <body>
15    
16     <p>
17 swift 1.3 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19     (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20     (special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
21     etc.).
22 swift 1.1 </p>
23    
24     </body>
25 swift 1.3 </subsection>
26     <subsection>
27     <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
28     <body>
29    
30     <p>
31 swift 1.17 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
32 swift 1.9 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
33 swift 1.3 its own meaning:
34     </p>
35    
36     <ul>
37     <li>
38     The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39     file)
40     </li>
41     <li>
42     The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
43     mounted
44     </li>
45     <li>
46     The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47     </li>
48     <li>
49     The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50     wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51     you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 swift 1.9 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53 swift 1.3 </li>
54     <li>
55     The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56     be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57     </li>
58     <li>
59 swift 1.17 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60     filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61     The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62     (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63 swift 1.3 </li>
64     </ul>
65    
66     <p>
67     So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68     <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69     </p>
70    
71     <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73     </pre>
74    
75     <p>
76 swift 1.17 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77 swift 1.3 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78 swift 1.29 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as PPC), don't copy it verbatim.
79 swift 1.3 </p>
80    
81     <p>
82     In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83     <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't
84     be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we
85     would write down:
86     </p>
87    
88     <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2
90     </pre>
91    
92     <p>
93     Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94 swift 1.27 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95 swift 1.3 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96     </p>
97    
98     <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
100     </pre>
101    
102     <p>
103     If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
104     <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
105     </p>
106    
107     <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
108     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
109     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
110     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111     </pre>
112    
113     <p>
114     To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
115 swift 1.7 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116 swift 1.3 partitions or drives, for those too):
117     </p>
118    
119     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
120     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
121     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123    
124     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125     none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
126    
127     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128     </pre>
129    
130     <p>
131     <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
132     removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
133     <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
134     </p>
135    
136     <p>
137     Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
138     SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path>
139     too:
140     </p>
141    
142     <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
143 swift 1.5 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
144     </pre>
145    
146     <p>
147     If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
148     </p>
149    
150     <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151     none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
152 swift 1.3 </pre>
153    
154     <p>
155     Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
156     </p>
157    
158     </body>
159     </subsection>
160 swift 1.2 </section>
161     <section>
162 swift 1.1 <title>Networking Information</title>
163 swift 1.3 <subsection>
164     <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
165     <body>
166    
167     <p>
168     One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite
169     easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate
170 swift 1.27 name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can
171 swift 1.3 be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
172     <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
173     </p>
174    
175     <p>
176     We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
177     </p>
178    
179     <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
180     # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
181     </pre>
182    
183     <p>
184     Second we set the domainname:
185     </p>
186    
187     <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
188     # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
189     </pre>
190    
191     <p>
192     If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
193     one), you need to define that one too:
194     </p>
195    
196     <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
197     # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
198 swift 1.12 </pre>
199    
200     <p>
201     Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
202     </p>
203    
204     <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
205     # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
206 swift 1.3 </pre>
207    
208     </body>
209     </subsection>
210     <subsection>
211     <title>Configuring your Network</title>
212     <body>
213    
214     <p>
215     Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
216 swift 1.27 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
217 swift 1.3 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
218     your Gentoo system permanently.
219     </p>
220    
221     <p>
222     All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
223     a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
224     networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
225     </p>
226    
227     <p>
228     First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
229     is used in this example):
230     </p>
231    
232     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
233     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
234     </pre>
235    
236     <p>
237     The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
238     syntax:
239     </p>
240    
241     <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
242     iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
243     </pre>
244    
245     <p>
246     If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
247 swift 1.21 to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
248     If you need to setup your network manually and you're
249 swift 1.3 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
250     link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
251     Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
252     </p>
253    
254     <p>
255 swift 1.23 So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
256     IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
257     gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
258     rp-pppoe usage:
259 swift 1.3 </p>
260    
261     <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
262 swift 1.27 <comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
263 swift 1.3 iface_eth0="dhcp"
264    
265 swift 1.27 <comment>(For static IP)</comment>
266 swift 1.3 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
267     gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
268 swift 1.23
269 swift 1.27 <comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
270 swift 1.23 iface_eth0="up"
271 swift 1.3 </pre>
272    
273     <p>
274     If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
275     like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
276     shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
277     </p>
278    
279     <p>
280     Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
281     </p>
282    
283     </body>
284     </subsection>
285     <subsection>
286     <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
287 swift 1.1 <body>
288    
289     <p>
290 swift 1.3 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
291     default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
292     the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
293     </p>
294    
295     <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
296     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
297     </pre>
298    
299     <p>
300     If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
301     <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
302     use <c>ln</c> to do this:
303 swift 1.1 </p>
304    
305 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
306     # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
307     # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
308     # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
309     </pre>
310    
311 swift 1.1 </body>
312 swift 1.3 </subsection>
313     <subsection>
314     <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
315     <body>
316    
317     <p>
318     You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
319     <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
320     for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
321     internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
322 swift 1.14 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
323 swift 1.3 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
324     </p>
325    
326     <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
327     # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
328     </pre>
329    
330     <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
331 swift 1.14 127.0.0.1 localhost
332 swift 1.22 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
333     192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
334     192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
335 swift 1.3 </pre>
336    
337     <p>
338     If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
339     resolution) a single line is sufficient:
340     </p>
341    
342     <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
343 swift 1.28 127.0.0.1 localhost
344 swift 1.3 </pre>
345    
346     <p>
347     Save and exit the editor to continue.
348     </p>
349    
350     <p>
351     If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
352 swift 1.20 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
353 swift 1.3 following topic on PCMCIA.
354     </p>
355    
356     </body>
357     </subsection>
358     <subsection>
359     <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
360     <body>
361    
362 swift 1.31 <note>
363     pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
364     </note>
365    
366 swift 1.3 <p>
367 swift 1.30 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The
368     <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing XFree86 at this moment:
369 swift 1.3 </p>
370    
371     <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
372 swift 1.30 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
373 swift 1.3 </pre>
374    
375     <p>
376 swift 1.19 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
377 swift 1.3 runlevel:
378     </p>
379    
380 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
381     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
382 swift 1.3 </pre>
383    
384     </body>
385     </subsection>
386 swift 1.2 </section>
387     <section>
388 swift 1.1 <title>System Information</title>
389     <body>
390    
391     <p>
392 swift 1.3 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
393     Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
394     </p>
395    
396     <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
397     # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
398     </pre>
399    
400     <p>
401     As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
402 swift 1.16 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
403     you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
404     your keyboard.
405     </p>
406    
407     <note>
408     Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
409     keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
410     </note>
411    
412     <p>
413 swift 1.29 PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB
414     keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
415     set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
416     </p>
417    
418     <p>
419 swift 1.16 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
420     continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
421 swift 1.1 </p>
422    
423     </body>
424     </section>
425 swift 1.2 </sections>

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