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s/reread/double-check/ your fstab as some people seem to interpret
this as run source or mount -a

1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 neysx 1.34 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.33 2004/04/15 07:06:36 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.8
9 swift 1.2 <sections>
10 swift 1.1 <section>
11     <title>Filesystem Information</title>
12 swift 1.3 <subsection>
13     <title>What is fstab?</title>
14 swift 1.1 <body>
15    
16     <p>
17 swift 1.3 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19     (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20     (special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
21     etc.).
22 swift 1.1 </p>
23    
24     </body>
25 swift 1.3 </subsection>
26     <subsection>
27     <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
28     <body>
29    
30     <p>
31 swift 1.17 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
32 swift 1.9 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
33 swift 1.3 its own meaning:
34     </p>
35    
36     <ul>
37     <li>
38     The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39     file)
40     </li>
41     <li>
42     The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
43     mounted
44     </li>
45     <li>
46     The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47     </li>
48     <li>
49     The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50     wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51     you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 swift 1.9 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53 swift 1.3 </li>
54     <li>
55     The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56     be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57     </li>
58     <li>
59 swift 1.17 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60     filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61     The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62     (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63 swift 1.3 </li>
64     </ul>
65    
66     <p>
67     So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68     <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69     </p>
70    
71     <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73     </pre>
74    
75     <p>
76 swift 1.17 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77 swift 1.3 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78 swift 1.32 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
79 swift 1.3 </p>
80    
81     <p>
82     In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83     <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't
84     be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we
85     would write down:
86     </p>
87    
88     <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2
90     </pre>
91    
92     <p>
93     Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94 swift 1.27 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95 swift 1.3 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96     </p>
97    
98     <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
100     </pre>
101    
102     <p>
103     If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
104     <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
105     </p>
106    
107     <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
108     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
109     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
110     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111     </pre>
112    
113     <p>
114     To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
115 swift 1.7 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116 swift 1.3 partitions or drives, for those too):
117     </p>
118    
119     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
120     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
121     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123    
124     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125     none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
126    
127     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128     </pre>
129    
130     <p>
131     <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
132     removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
133     <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
134     </p>
135    
136     <p>
137     Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
138 swift 1.32 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
139     <path>/etc/fstab</path>
140 swift 1.3 too:
141     </p>
142    
143     <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
144 swift 1.5 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
145     </pre>
146    
147     <p>
148     If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
149     </p>
150    
151     <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
152     none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
153 swift 1.3 </pre>
154    
155     <p>
156 neysx 1.34 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
157 swift 1.3 </p>
158    
159     </body>
160     </subsection>
161 swift 1.2 </section>
162     <section>
163 swift 1.1 <title>Networking Information</title>
164 swift 1.3 <subsection>
165     <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
166     <body>
167    
168     <p>
169 swift 1.33 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
170     quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
171     appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
172     choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
173 swift 1.3 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
174     </p>
175    
176     <p>
177     We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
178     </p>
179    
180     <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
181     # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
182     </pre>
183    
184     <p>
185     Second we set the domainname:
186     </p>
187    
188     <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
189     # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
190     </pre>
191    
192     <p>
193     If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
194     one), you need to define that one too:
195     </p>
196    
197     <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
198     # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
199 swift 1.12 </pre>
200    
201     <p>
202     Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
203     </p>
204    
205     <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
206     # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
207 swift 1.3 </pre>
208    
209     </body>
210     </subsection>
211     <subsection>
212     <title>Configuring your Network</title>
213     <body>
214    
215     <p>
216     Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
217 swift 1.27 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
218 swift 1.3 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
219     your Gentoo system permanently.
220     </p>
221    
222     <p>
223     All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
224     a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
225     networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
226     </p>
227    
228     <p>
229     First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
230     is used in this example):
231     </p>
232    
233     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
234     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
235     </pre>
236    
237     <p>
238     The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
239     syntax:
240     </p>
241    
242     <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
243     iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
244     </pre>
245    
246     <p>
247     If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
248 swift 1.21 to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
249     If you need to setup your network manually and you're
250 swift 1.3 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
251     link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
252     Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
253     </p>
254    
255     <p>
256 swift 1.23 So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
257     IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
258     gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
259     rp-pppoe usage:
260 swift 1.3 </p>
261    
262     <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
263 swift 1.27 <comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
264 swift 1.3 iface_eth0="dhcp"
265    
266 swift 1.27 <comment>(For static IP)</comment>
267 swift 1.3 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
268     gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
269 swift 1.23
270 swift 1.27 <comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
271 swift 1.23 iface_eth0="up"
272 swift 1.3 </pre>
273    
274     <p>
275     If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
276     like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
277     shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
278     </p>
279    
280     <p>
281     Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
282     </p>
283    
284     </body>
285     </subsection>
286     <subsection>
287     <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
288 swift 1.1 <body>
289    
290     <p>
291 swift 1.3 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
292     default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
293     the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
294     </p>
295    
296     <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
297     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
298     </pre>
299    
300     <p>
301     If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
302     <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
303     use <c>ln</c> to do this:
304 swift 1.1 </p>
305    
306 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
307     # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
308     # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
309     # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
310     </pre>
311    
312 swift 1.1 </body>
313 swift 1.3 </subsection>
314     <subsection>
315     <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
316     <body>
317    
318     <p>
319     You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
320     <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
321     for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
322     internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
323 swift 1.14 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
324 swift 1.3 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
325     </p>
326    
327     <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
328     # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
329     </pre>
330    
331     <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
332 swift 1.14 127.0.0.1 localhost
333 swift 1.22 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
334     192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
335     192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
336 swift 1.3 </pre>
337    
338     <p>
339     If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
340     resolution) a single line is sufficient:
341     </p>
342    
343     <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
344 swift 1.28 127.0.0.1 localhost
345 swift 1.3 </pre>
346    
347     <p>
348     Save and exit the editor to continue.
349     </p>
350    
351     <p>
352     If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
353 swift 1.20 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
354 swift 1.3 following topic on PCMCIA.
355     </p>
356    
357     </body>
358     </subsection>
359     <subsection>
360     <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
361     <body>
362    
363 swift 1.31 <note>
364     pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
365     </note>
366    
367 swift 1.3 <p>
368 swift 1.30 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The
369     <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing XFree86 at this moment:
370 swift 1.3 </p>
371    
372     <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
373 swift 1.30 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
374 swift 1.3 </pre>
375    
376     <p>
377 swift 1.19 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
378 swift 1.3 runlevel:
379     </p>
380    
381 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
382     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
383 swift 1.3 </pre>
384    
385     </body>
386     </subsection>
387 swift 1.2 </section>
388     <section>
389 swift 1.1 <title>System Information</title>
390     <body>
391    
392     <p>
393 swift 1.3 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
394     Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
395     </p>
396    
397     <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
398     # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
399     </pre>
400    
401     <p>
402     As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
403 swift 1.16 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
404     you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
405     your keyboard.
406     </p>
407    
408     <note>
409 swift 1.32 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
410     select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
411 swift 1.16 </note>
412    
413     <p>
414 swift 1.32 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
415     ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
416     to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
417 swift 1.29 </p>
418    
419     <p>
420 swift 1.16 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
421     continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
422 swift 1.1 </p>
423    
424     </body>
425     </section>
426 swift 1.2 </sections>

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