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1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.38 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.37 2004/07/26 09:04:42 dertobi123 Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.8
9 swift 1.2 <sections>
10 swift 1.1 <section>
11     <title>Filesystem Information</title>
12 swift 1.3 <subsection>
13     <title>What is fstab?</title>
14 swift 1.1 <body>
15    
16     <p>
17 swift 1.3 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19     (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20     (special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
21     etc.).
22 swift 1.1 </p>
23    
24     </body>
25 swift 1.3 </subsection>
26     <subsection>
27     <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
28     <body>
29    
30     <p>
31 swift 1.17 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
32 swift 1.9 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
33 swift 1.3 its own meaning:
34     </p>
35    
36     <ul>
37     <li>
38     The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39     file)
40     </li>
41     <li>
42     The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
43     mounted
44     </li>
45     <li>
46     The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47     </li>
48     <li>
49     The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50     wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51     you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 swift 1.9 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53 swift 1.3 </li>
54     <li>
55     The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56     be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57     </li>
58     <li>
59 swift 1.17 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60     filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61     The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62     (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63 swift 1.3 </li>
64     </ul>
65    
66     <p>
67     So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68     <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69     </p>
70    
71     <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73     </pre>
74    
75     <p>
76 swift 1.17 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77 swift 1.3 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78 swift 1.32 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
79 swift 1.3 </p>
80    
81     <p>
82     In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83 swift 1.35 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
84     It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85 swift 1.3 </p>
86    
87     <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
88 swift 1.35 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
89 swift 1.3 </pre>
90    
91     <p>
92 swift 1.35 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
93     automatically. Those people should substitute <c>defaults</c> with
94     <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to manually mount this partition
95     every time you want to use it.
96     </p>
97    
98     <p>
99 swift 1.3 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
100 swift 1.27 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
101 swift 1.3 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
102     </p>
103    
104     <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
105     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
106     </pre>
107    
108     <p>
109     If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
110     <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
111     </p>
112    
113     <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
114     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
115     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
116     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
117     </pre>
118    
119     <p>
120     To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
121 swift 1.7 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
122 swift 1.3 partitions or drives, for those too):
123     </p>
124    
125     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
126     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
127     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
128     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
129    
130     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
131     none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
132    
133     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
134     </pre>
135    
136     <p>
137     <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
138     removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
139     <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
140     </p>
141    
142     <p>
143     Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
144 swift 1.32 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
145     <path>/etc/fstab</path>
146 swift 1.3 too:
147     </p>
148    
149     <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
150 swift 1.5 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
151     </pre>
152    
153     <p>
154     If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
155     </p>
156    
157     <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158     none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
159 swift 1.3 </pre>
160    
161     <p>
162 neysx 1.34 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
163 swift 1.3 </p>
164    
165     </body>
166     </subsection>
167 swift 1.2 </section>
168     <section>
169 swift 1.1 <title>Networking Information</title>
170 swift 1.3 <subsection>
171     <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
172     <body>
173    
174     <p>
175 swift 1.33 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
176     quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
177     appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
178     choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
179 swift 1.3 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
180     </p>
181    
182     <p>
183     We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
184     </p>
185    
186     <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
187     # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
188     </pre>
189    
190     <p>
191     Second we set the domainname:
192     </p>
193    
194     <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195     # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
196     </pre>
197    
198     <p>
199     If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
200     one), you need to define that one too:
201     </p>
202    
203     <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
204     # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
205 swift 1.12 </pre>
206    
207     <p>
208     Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
209     </p>
210    
211     <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
212     # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
213 swift 1.3 </pre>
214    
215     </body>
216     </subsection>
217     <subsection>
218     <title>Configuring your Network</title>
219     <body>
220    
221     <p>
222     Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
223 swift 1.27 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
224 swift 1.3 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
225     your Gentoo system permanently.
226     </p>
227    
228     <p>
229     All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
230     a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
231     networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
232     </p>
233    
234     <p>
235     First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
236     is used in this example):
237     </p>
238    
239     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
240     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
241     </pre>
242    
243     <p>
244     The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
245     syntax:
246     </p>
247    
248     <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
249     iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
250     </pre>
251    
252     <p>
253     If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
254 swift 1.21 to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
255     If you need to setup your network manually and you're
256 swift 1.3 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
257     link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
258     Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
259     </p>
260    
261     <p>
262 swift 1.23 So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
263     IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
264     gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
265     rp-pppoe usage:
266 swift 1.3 </p>
267    
268     <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
269 swift 1.27 <comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
270 swift 1.3 iface_eth0="dhcp"
271 swift 1.38 <comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
272     <comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
273     <comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
274     <comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
275 neysx 1.36 dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
276 swift 1.38 <comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
277     <comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
278 neysx 1.36 dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
279 swift 1.3
280 swift 1.27 <comment>(For static IP)</comment>
281 swift 1.3 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
282     gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
283 swift 1.23
284 swift 1.27 <comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
285 swift 1.23 iface_eth0="up"
286 swift 1.3 </pre>
287    
288     <p>
289     If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
290     like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
291     shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
292     </p>
293    
294     <p>
295     Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
296     </p>
297    
298     </body>
299     </subsection>
300     <subsection>
301     <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
302 swift 1.1 <body>
303    
304     <p>
305 swift 1.3 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
306     default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
307     the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
308     </p>
309    
310     <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
311     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
312     </pre>
313    
314     <p>
315     If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
316     <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
317     use <c>ln</c> to do this:
318 swift 1.1 </p>
319    
320 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
321     # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
322     # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
323     # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
324     </pre>
325    
326 swift 1.1 </body>
327 swift 1.3 </subsection>
328     <subsection>
329     <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
330     <body>
331    
332     <p>
333     You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
334     <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
335     for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
336     internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
337 swift 1.14 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
338 swift 1.3 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
339     </p>
340    
341     <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
342     # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
343     </pre>
344    
345     <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
346 swift 1.14 127.0.0.1 localhost
347 swift 1.22 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
348     192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
349     192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
350 swift 1.3 </pre>
351    
352     <p>
353     If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
354     resolution) a single line is sufficient:
355     </p>
356    
357     <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
358 swift 1.28 127.0.0.1 localhost
359 swift 1.3 </pre>
360    
361     <p>
362     Save and exit the editor to continue.
363     </p>
364    
365     <p>
366     If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
367 swift 1.20 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
368 swift 1.3 following topic on PCMCIA.
369     </p>
370    
371     </body>
372     </subsection>
373     <subsection>
374     <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
375     <body>
376    
377 swift 1.31 <note>
378     pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
379     </note>
380    
381 swift 1.3 <p>
382 swift 1.30 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The
383 dertobi123 1.37 <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
384 swift 1.3 </p>
385    
386     <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
387 swift 1.30 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
388 swift 1.3 </pre>
389    
390     <p>
391 swift 1.19 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
392 swift 1.3 runlevel:
393     </p>
394    
395 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
396     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
397 swift 1.3 </pre>
398    
399     </body>
400     </subsection>
401 swift 1.2 </section>
402     <section>
403 swift 1.1 <title>System Information</title>
404     <body>
405    
406     <p>
407 swift 1.3 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
408     Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
409     </p>
410    
411     <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
412     # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
413     </pre>
414    
415     <p>
416     As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
417 swift 1.16 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
418     you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
419     your keyboard.
420     </p>
421    
422     <note>
423 swift 1.32 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
424     select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
425 swift 1.16 </note>
426    
427     <p>
428 swift 1.32 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
429     ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
430     to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
431 swift 1.29 </p>
432    
433     <p>
434 swift 1.16 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
435     continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
436 swift 1.1 </p>
437    
438     </body>
439     </section>
440 swift 1.2 </sections>

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