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1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 vapier 1.47 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.46 2004/09/11 13:34:53 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.8
9 swift 1.2 <sections>
10 swift 1.1 <section>
11     <title>Filesystem Information</title>
12 swift 1.3 <subsection>
13     <title>What is fstab?</title>
14 swift 1.1 <body>
15    
16     <p>
17 swift 1.3 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19     (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20 neysx 1.45 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21     them or not, etc.)
22 swift 1.1 </p>
23    
24     </body>
25 swift 1.3 </subsection>
26     <subsection>
27     <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
28     <body>
29    
30     <p>
31 swift 1.17 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
32 swift 1.9 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
33 swift 1.3 its own meaning:
34     </p>
35    
36     <ul>
37     <li>
38     The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39     file)
40     </li>
41     <li>
42     The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
43     mounted
44     </li>
45     <li>
46     The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47     </li>
48     <li>
49     The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50     wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51     you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 swift 1.9 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53 swift 1.3 </li>
54     <li>
55     The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56     be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57     </li>
58     <li>
59 swift 1.17 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60     filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61     The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 neysx 1.45 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63 swift 1.3 </li>
64     </ul>
65    
66     <p>
67 swift 1.44 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
68     file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
69 swift 1.3 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
70     </p>
71    
72     <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
73     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
74     </pre>
75    
76     <p>
77 swift 1.17 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
78 swift 1.3 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
79 swift 1.32 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
80 swift 1.3 </p>
81    
82     <p>
83     In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
84 swift 1.35 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
85     It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
86 swift 1.3 </p>
87    
88     <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89 swift 1.35 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
90 swift 1.3 </pre>
91    
92     <p>
93 swift 1.35 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
94 swift 1.43 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
95     substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
96     manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
97 swift 1.35 </p>
98    
99     <p>
100 swift 1.3 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
101 swift 1.27 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
102 swift 1.3 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
103     </p>
104    
105     <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
106 swift 1.43 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
107 swift 1.3 </pre>
108    
109     <p>
110     If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
111     <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
112     </p>
113    
114     <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
115 swift 1.43 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
116 swift 1.3 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
117     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
118     </pre>
119    
120     <p>
121     To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
122 swift 1.7 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
123 swift 1.3 partitions or drives, for those too):
124     </p>
125    
126     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
127 vapier 1.47 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
128     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
129     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
130 swift 1.3
131 vapier 1.47 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
132     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
133 swift 1.3
134     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
135     </pre>
136    
137     <p>
138     <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
139     removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
140     <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
141     </p>
142    
143     <p>
144     Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
145 swift 1.32 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
146     <path>/etc/fstab</path>
147 swift 1.3 too:
148     </p>
149    
150     <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151 swift 1.5 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
152     </pre>
153    
154     <p>
155     If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
156     </p>
157    
158     <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
159     none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
160 swift 1.3 </pre>
161    
162     <p>
163 neysx 1.34 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
164 swift 1.3 </p>
165    
166     </body>
167     </subsection>
168 swift 1.2 </section>
169     <section>
170 swift 1.1 <title>Networking Information</title>
171 swift 1.3 <subsection>
172     <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
173     <body>
174    
175     <p>
176 swift 1.33 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
177     quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
178     appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
179     choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
180 swift 1.3 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
181     </p>
182    
183     <p>
184     We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
185     </p>
186    
187     <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
188     # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
189     </pre>
190    
191     <p>
192     Second we set the domainname:
193     </p>
194    
195     <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
196     # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
197     </pre>
198    
199     <p>
200     If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
201     one), you need to define that one too:
202     </p>
203    
204     <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
205     # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
206 swift 1.12 </pre>
207    
208     <p>
209     Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
210     </p>
211    
212     <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
213     # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
214 swift 1.3 </pre>
215    
216     </body>
217     </subsection>
218     <subsection>
219     <title>Configuring your Network</title>
220     <body>
221    
222     <p>
223     Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
224 swift 1.27 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
225 swift 1.3 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
226     your Gentoo system permanently.
227     </p>
228    
229     <p>
230     All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
231     a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
232     networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
233     </p>
234    
235     <p>
236     First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
237     is used in this example):
238     </p>
239    
240     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
241     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
242     </pre>
243    
244     <p>
245     The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
246     syntax:
247     </p>
248    
249     <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
250     iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
251     </pre>
252    
253     <p>
254     If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
255 swift 1.21 to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
256     If you need to setup your network manually and you're
257 swift 1.3 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
258 neysx 1.42 link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
259 swift 1.3 Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
260     </p>
261    
262     <p>
263 swift 1.23 So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
264     IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
265     gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
266     rp-pppoe usage:
267 swift 1.3 </p>
268    
269     <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
270 swift 1.27 <comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
271 swift 1.3 iface_eth0="dhcp"
272 swift 1.38 <comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
273     <comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
274     <comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
275     <comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
276 neysx 1.36 dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
277 swift 1.38 <comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
278     <comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
279 neysx 1.36 dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
280 swift 1.3
281 swift 1.27 <comment>(For static IP)</comment>
282 swift 1.3 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
283     gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
284 swift 1.23
285 swift 1.27 <comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
286 swift 1.23 iface_eth0="up"
287 swift 1.3 </pre>
288    
289     <p>
290     If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
291     like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
292     shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
293     </p>
294    
295     <p>
296     Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
297     </p>
298    
299     </body>
300     </subsection>
301     <subsection>
302     <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
303 swift 1.1 <body>
304    
305     <p>
306 neysx 1.45 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
307 swift 1.3 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
308     the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
309     </p>
310    
311     <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
312     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
313     </pre>
314    
315     <p>
316     If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
317     <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
318     use <c>ln</c> to do this:
319 swift 1.1 </p>
320    
321 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
322     # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
323     # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
324     # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
325     </pre>
326    
327 swift 1.1 </body>
328 swift 1.3 </subsection>
329     <subsection>
330     <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
331     <body>
332    
333     <p>
334     You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
335     <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
336     for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
337     internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
338 swift 1.14 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
339 swift 1.3 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
340     </p>
341    
342     <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
343     # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
344     </pre>
345    
346     <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
347 swift 1.14 127.0.0.1 localhost
348 swift 1.22 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
349     192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
350     192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
351 swift 1.3 </pre>
352    
353     <p>
354     If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
355 swift 1.39 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
356     system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>:
357 swift 1.3 </p>
358    
359     <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
360 swift 1.39 127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
361 swift 1.3 </pre>
362    
363     <p>
364     Save and exit the editor to continue.
365     </p>
366    
367     <p>
368     If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
369 swift 1.20 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
370 swift 1.3 following topic on PCMCIA.
371     </p>
372    
373     </body>
374     </subsection>
375     <subsection>
376     <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
377     <body>
378    
379 swift 1.31 <note>
380     pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
381     </note>
382    
383 swift 1.3 <p>
384 swift 1.46 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
385     includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
386     using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
387     to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
388 swift 1.3 </p>
389    
390     <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
391 swift 1.30 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
392 swift 1.3 </pre>
393    
394     <p>
395 swift 1.19 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
396 swift 1.3 runlevel:
397     </p>
398    
399 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
400     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
401 swift 1.3 </pre>
402    
403     </body>
404     </subsection>
405 swift 1.2 </section>
406     <section>
407 swift 1.1 <title>System Information</title>
408 swift 1.41 <subsection>
409     <title>Root Password</title>
410     <body>
411    
412     <p>
413     First we set the root password by typing:
414     </p>
415    
416     <pre caption="Setting the root password">
417     # <i>passwd</i>
418     </pre>
419    
420     <p>
421     If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
422     <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
423     </p>
424    
425     <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
426     # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
427     </pre>
428    
429     </body>
430     </subsection>
431     <subsection>
432     <title>System Information</title>
433 swift 1.1 <body>
434    
435     <p>
436 swift 1.3 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
437     Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
438     </p>
439    
440     <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
441     # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
442     </pre>
443    
444     <p>
445     As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
446 swift 1.16 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
447     you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
448     your keyboard.
449     </p>
450    
451     <note>
452 swift 1.32 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
453     select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
454 swift 1.16 </note>
455    
456     <p>
457 swift 1.32 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
458     ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
459     to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
460 swift 1.29 </p>
461    
462     <p>
463 swift 1.16 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
464 swift 1.41 continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
465     Tools</uri>.
466 swift 1.1 </p>
467    
468     </body>
469 swift 1.41 </subsection>
470 swift 1.1 </section>
471 swift 1.2 </sections>

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