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1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 neysx 1.52 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.51 2004/11/15 12:47:47 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.8
9 swift 1.2 <sections>
10 swift 1.50
11     <version>1.49</version>
12 neysx 1.52 <date>2004-10-23</date>
13 swift 1.50
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 swift 1.3 <subsection>
17     <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 swift 1.1 <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.3 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23     (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 neysx 1.45 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25     them or not, etc.)
26 swift 1.1 </p>
27    
28     </body>
29 swift 1.3 </subsection>
30     <subsection>
31     <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35 swift 1.17 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 swift 1.9 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 swift 1.3 its own meaning:
38     </p>
39    
40     <ul>
41     <li>
42     The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43     file)
44     </li>
45     <li>
46     The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47     mounted
48     </li>
49     <li>
50     The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51     </li>
52     <li>
53     The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54     wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 swift 1.49 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 swift 1.9 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57 swift 1.3 </li>
58     <li>
59     The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60     be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61     </li>
62     <li>
63 swift 1.17 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64     filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65     The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 neysx 1.45 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 swift 1.3 </li>
68     </ul>
69    
70     <p>
71 swift 1.44 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
72     file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73 swift 1.3 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74     </p>
75    
76     <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78     </pre>
79    
80     <p>
81 swift 1.17 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82 swift 1.3 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83 swift 1.32 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
84 swift 1.3 </p>
85    
86     <p>
87     In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
88 swift 1.35 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
89     It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90 swift 1.3 </p>
91    
92     <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93 swift 1.35 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94 swift 1.3 </pre>
95    
96     <p>
97 swift 1.35 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98 swift 1.43 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99     substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100     manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101 swift 1.35 </p>
102    
103     <p>
104 swift 1.3 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
105 swift 1.27 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
106 swift 1.3 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107     </p>
108    
109     <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
110 swift 1.43 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
111 swift 1.3 </pre>
112    
113     <p>
114     If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
115     <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116     </p>
117    
118     <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
119 swift 1.43 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
120 swift 1.3 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
121     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
122     </pre>
123    
124     <p>
125     To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126 swift 1.7 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127 swift 1.3 partitions or drives, for those too):
128     </p>
129    
130     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
131 vapier 1.47 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
132     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
133     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
134 swift 1.3
135 vapier 1.47 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
136     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
137 swift 1.3
138     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139     </pre>
140    
141     <p>
142     <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143     removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144     <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145     </p>
146    
147     <p>
148     Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
149 swift 1.32 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150     <path>/etc/fstab</path>
151 swift 1.3 too:
152     </p>
153    
154     <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155 swift 1.5 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156     </pre>
157    
158     <p>
159     If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
160     </p>
161    
162     <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
163     none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
164 swift 1.3 </pre>
165    
166     <p>
167 neysx 1.34 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
168 swift 1.3 </p>
169    
170     </body>
171     </subsection>
172 swift 1.2 </section>
173     <section>
174 swift 1.1 <title>Networking Information</title>
175 swift 1.3 <subsection>
176     <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
177     <body>
178    
179     <p>
180 swift 1.33 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
181     quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
182     appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
183     choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
184 swift 1.3 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
185     </p>
186    
187     <p>
188     We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
189     </p>
190    
191     <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
192     # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
193     </pre>
194    
195     <p>
196     Second we set the domainname:
197     </p>
198    
199     <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
200     # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
201     </pre>
202    
203     <p>
204     If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
205     one), you need to define that one too:
206     </p>
207    
208     <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
209     # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
210 swift 1.12 </pre>
211    
212     <p>
213     Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
214     </p>
215    
216     <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
217     # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
218 swift 1.3 </pre>
219    
220     </body>
221     </subsection>
222     <subsection>
223     <title>Configuring your Network</title>
224     <body>
225    
226     <p>
227     Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
228 swift 1.27 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
229 swift 1.3 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
230     your Gentoo system permanently.
231     </p>
232    
233     <p>
234     All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
235 swift 1.48 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
236 swift 1.3 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
237     </p>
238    
239     <p>
240     First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
241     is used in this example):
242     </p>
243    
244     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
245     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
246     </pre>
247    
248     <p>
249     The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
250     syntax:
251     </p>
252    
253     <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
254     iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
255     </pre>
256    
257     <p>
258     If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
259 swift 1.21 to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
260 swift 1.48 If you need to set up your network manually and you're
261 swift 1.3 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
262 neysx 1.42 link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
263 swift 1.3 Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
264     </p>
265    
266     <p>
267 swift 1.23 So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
268     IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
269     gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
270     rp-pppoe usage:
271 swift 1.3 </p>
272    
273     <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
274 swift 1.27 <comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
275 swift 1.3 iface_eth0="dhcp"
276 swift 1.38 <comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
277     <comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
278     <comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
279     <comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
280 neysx 1.36 dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
281 swift 1.38 <comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
282     <comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
283 neysx 1.36 dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
284 swift 1.3
285 swift 1.27 <comment>(For static IP)</comment>
286 swift 1.3 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
287     gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
288 swift 1.23
289 swift 1.27 <comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
290 swift 1.23 iface_eth0="up"
291 swift 1.3 </pre>
292    
293     <p>
294     If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
295     like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
296     shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
297     </p>
298    
299     <p>
300     Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
301     </p>
302    
303     </body>
304     </subsection>
305     <subsection>
306     <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
307 swift 1.1 <body>
308    
309     <p>
310 neysx 1.45 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
311 swift 1.3 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
312     the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
313     </p>
314    
315     <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
316     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
317     </pre>
318    
319     <p>
320     If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
321     <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
322     use <c>ln</c> to do this:
323 swift 1.1 </p>
324    
325 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
326     # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
327     # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
328     # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
329     </pre>
330    
331 swift 1.1 </body>
332 swift 1.3 </subsection>
333     <subsection>
334     <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
335     <body>
336    
337     <p>
338     You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
339     <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
340     for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
341     internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
342 swift 1.14 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
343 swift 1.3 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
344     </p>
345    
346     <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
347     # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
348     </pre>
349    
350     <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
351 swift 1.14 127.0.0.1 localhost
352 swift 1.22 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
353     192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
354     192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
355 swift 1.3 </pre>
356    
357     <p>
358     If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
359 swift 1.39 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
360     system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>:
361 swift 1.3 </p>
362    
363     <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
364 swift 1.39 127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
365 swift 1.3 </pre>
366    
367     <p>
368     Save and exit the editor to continue.
369     </p>
370    
371     <p>
372     If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
373 swift 1.20 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
374 swift 1.3 following topic on PCMCIA.
375     </p>
376    
377     </body>
378     </subsection>
379     <subsection>
380     <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
381     <body>
382    
383 swift 1.31 <note>
384     pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
385     </note>
386    
387 swift 1.3 <p>
388 swift 1.46 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
389     includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
390     using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
391     to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
392 swift 1.3 </p>
393    
394     <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
395 swift 1.30 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
396 swift 1.3 </pre>
397    
398     <p>
399 swift 1.19 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
400 swift 1.3 runlevel:
401     </p>
402    
403 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
404     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
405 swift 1.3 </pre>
406    
407     </body>
408     </subsection>
409 swift 1.2 </section>
410     <section>
411 swift 1.1 <title>System Information</title>
412 swift 1.41 <subsection>
413     <title>Root Password</title>
414     <body>
415    
416     <p>
417     First we set the root password by typing:
418     </p>
419    
420     <pre caption="Setting the root password">
421     # <i>passwd</i>
422     </pre>
423    
424     <p>
425     If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
426     <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
427     </p>
428    
429     <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
430     # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
431     </pre>
432    
433     </body>
434     </subsection>
435     <subsection>
436     <title>System Information</title>
437 swift 1.1 <body>
438    
439     <p>
440 swift 1.3 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
441     Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
442     </p>
443    
444     <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
445     # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
446     </pre>
447    
448     <p>
449     As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
450 swift 1.16 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
451     you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
452     your keyboard.
453     </p>
454    
455     <note>
456 swift 1.32 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
457     select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
458 swift 1.16 </note>
459    
460     <p>
461 swift 1.32 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
462     ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
463     to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
464 swift 1.29 </p>
465    
466     <p>
467 swift 1.16 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
468 swift 1.41 continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
469     Tools</uri>.
470 swift 1.1 </p>
471    
472     </body>
473 swift 1.41 </subsection>
474 swift 1.1 </section>
475 swift 1.2 </sections>

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