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1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.57 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.56 2005/03/28 11:30:52 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.8
9 swift 1.2 <sections>
10 swift 1.50
11 swift 1.57 <version>2.1</version>
12     <date>2005-04-07</date>
13 swift 1.50
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 swift 1.3 <subsection>
17     <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 swift 1.1 <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.3 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23     (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 neysx 1.45 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25     them or not, etc.)
26 swift 1.1 </p>
27    
28     </body>
29 swift 1.3 </subsection>
30     <subsection>
31     <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35 swift 1.17 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 swift 1.9 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 swift 1.3 its own meaning:
38     </p>
39    
40     <ul>
41     <li>
42     The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43     file)
44     </li>
45     <li>
46     The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47     mounted
48     </li>
49     <li>
50     The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51     </li>
52     <li>
53     The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54     wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 swift 1.49 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 swift 1.9 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57 swift 1.3 </li>
58     <li>
59     The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60     be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61     </li>
62     <li>
63 swift 1.17 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64     filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65     The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 neysx 1.45 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 swift 1.3 </li>
68     </ul>
69    
70     <p>
71 swift 1.44 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
72     file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73 swift 1.3 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74     </p>
75    
76     <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78     </pre>
79    
80     <p>
81 swift 1.17 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82 swift 1.3 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83 swift 1.32 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
84 swift 1.3 </p>
85    
86     <p>
87     In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
88 swift 1.35 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
89     It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90 swift 1.3 </p>
91    
92     <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93 swift 1.35 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94 swift 1.3 </pre>
95    
96     <p>
97 swift 1.35 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98 swift 1.43 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99     substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100     manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101 swift 1.35 </p>
102    
103     <p>
104 swift 1.3 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
105 swift 1.27 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
106 swift 1.3 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107     </p>
108    
109     <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
110 swift 1.43 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
111 swift 1.3 </pre>
112    
113     <p>
114     If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
115     <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116     </p>
117    
118     <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
119 swift 1.43 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
120 swift 1.3 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
121     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
122     </pre>
123    
124     <p>
125     To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126 swift 1.7 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127 swift 1.3 partitions or drives, for those too):
128     </p>
129    
130     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
131 swift 1.54 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
132 vapier 1.47 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
133     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
134 swift 1.3
135 vapier 1.47 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
136     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
137 swift 1.3
138     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139     </pre>
140    
141     <p>
142     <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143     removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144     <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145     </p>
146    
147     <p>
148     Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
149 swift 1.32 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150     <path>/etc/fstab</path>
151 swift 1.3 too:
152     </p>
153    
154     <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155 swift 1.5 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156     </pre>
157    
158     <p>
159 neysx 1.34 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
160 swift 1.3 </p>
161    
162     </body>
163     </subsection>
164 swift 1.2 </section>
165     <section>
166 swift 1.1 <title>Networking Information</title>
167 swift 1.3 <subsection>
168     <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
169     <body>
170    
171     <p>
172 swift 1.33 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
173     quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
174     appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
175     choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
176 swift 1.3 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
177     </p>
178    
179     <p>
180     We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
181     </p>
182    
183     <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
184     # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
185     </pre>
186    
187     <p>
188     Second we set the domainname:
189     </p>
190    
191     <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
192     # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
193     </pre>
194    
195     <p>
196     If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
197     one), you need to define that one too:
198     </p>
199    
200     <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
201     # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
202 swift 1.12 </pre>
203    
204     <p>
205     Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
206     </p>
207    
208     <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
209     # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
210 swift 1.3 </pre>
211    
212     </body>
213     </subsection>
214     <subsection>
215     <title>Configuring your Network</title>
216     <body>
217    
218     <p>
219     Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
220 swift 1.27 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
221 swift 1.3 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
222     your Gentoo system permanently.
223     </p>
224    
225     <p>
226     All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
227 swift 1.48 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
228 swift 1.3 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
229     </p>
230    
231     <p>
232     First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
233     is used in this example):
234     </p>
235    
236     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
237     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
238     </pre>
239    
240     <p>
241     The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
242     syntax:
243     </p>
244    
245     <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
246     iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
247     </pre>
248    
249     <p>
250     If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
251 swift 1.21 to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
252 swift 1.48 If you need to set up your network manually and you're
253 swift 1.3 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
254 neysx 1.42 link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
255 swift 1.3 Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
256     </p>
257    
258     <p>
259 swift 1.23 So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
260     IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
261     gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
262     rp-pppoe usage:
263 swift 1.3 </p>
264    
265     <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
266 swift 1.27 <comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
267 swift 1.3 iface_eth0="dhcp"
268 swift 1.38 <comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
269     <comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
270     <comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
271     <comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
272 neysx 1.36 dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
273 swift 1.38 <comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
274     <comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
275 neysx 1.36 dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
276 swift 1.3
277 swift 1.27 <comment>(For static IP)</comment>
278 swift 1.3 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
279     gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
280 swift 1.23
281 swift 1.27 <comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
282 swift 1.23 iface_eth0="up"
283 swift 1.3 </pre>
284    
285     <p>
286     If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
287     like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
288     shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
289     </p>
290    
291     <p>
292     Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
293     </p>
294    
295     </body>
296     </subsection>
297     <subsection>
298     <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
299 swift 1.1 <body>
300    
301     <p>
302 neysx 1.45 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
303 swift 1.3 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
304     the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
305     </p>
306    
307     <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
308     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
309     </pre>
310    
311     <p>
312     If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
313     <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
314     use <c>ln</c> to do this:
315 swift 1.1 </p>
316    
317 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
318     # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
319     # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
320     # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
321     </pre>
322    
323 swift 1.1 </body>
324 swift 1.3 </subsection>
325     <subsection>
326     <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
327     <body>
328    
329     <p>
330     You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
331     <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
332     for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
333     internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
334 swift 1.14 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
335 swift 1.3 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
336     </p>
337    
338     <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
339     # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
340     </pre>
341    
342     <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
343 swift 1.14 127.0.0.1 localhost
344 swift 1.22 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
345     192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
346     192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
347 swift 1.3 </pre>
348    
349     <p>
350     If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
351 swift 1.39 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
352 swift 1.53 system <c>tux</c>:
353 swift 1.3 </p>
354    
355     <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
356 swift 1.53 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
357 swift 1.3 </pre>
358    
359     <p>
360     Save and exit the editor to continue.
361     </p>
362    
363     <p>
364     If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
365 swift 1.20 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
366 swift 1.3 following topic on PCMCIA.
367     </p>
368    
369     </body>
370     </subsection>
371     <subsection>
372     <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
373     <body>
374    
375 swift 1.31 <note>
376     pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
377     </note>
378    
379 swift 1.3 <p>
380 swift 1.46 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
381     includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
382     using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
383     to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
384 swift 1.3 </p>
385    
386     <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
387 swift 1.30 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
388 swift 1.3 </pre>
389    
390     <p>
391 swift 1.19 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
392 swift 1.3 runlevel:
393     </p>
394    
395 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
396     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
397 swift 1.3 </pre>
398    
399     </body>
400     </subsection>
401 swift 1.2 </section>
402     <section>
403 swift 1.1 <title>System Information</title>
404 swift 1.41 <subsection>
405     <title>Root Password</title>
406     <body>
407    
408     <p>
409     First we set the root password by typing:
410     </p>
411    
412     <pre caption="Setting the root password">
413     # <i>passwd</i>
414     </pre>
415    
416     <p>
417     If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
418     <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
419     </p>
420    
421     <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
422     # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
423     </pre>
424    
425     </body>
426     </subsection>
427     <subsection>
428     <title>System Information</title>
429 swift 1.1 <body>
430    
431     <p>
432 swift 1.3 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
433     Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
434     </p>
435    
436     <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
437     # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
438     </pre>
439    
440     <p>
441     As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
442 swift 1.16 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
443     you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
444     your keyboard.
445     </p>
446    
447     <note>
448 swift 1.32 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
449     select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
450 swift 1.16 </note>
451    
452     <p>
453 swift 1.32 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
454     ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
455     to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
456 swift 1.29 </p>
457    
458     <p>
459 swift 1.16 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
460 swift 1.41 continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
461     Tools</uri>.
462 swift 1.1 </p>
463    
464     </body>
465 swift 1.41 </subsection>
466 swift 1.1 </section>
467 swift 1.2 </sections>

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