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1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6    
7 swift 1.59 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.58 2005/04/08 12:03:44 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.8
9 swift 1.2 <sections>
10 swift 1.50
11 swift 1.59 <version>2.2</version>
12     <date>2005-04-20</date>
13 swift 1.50
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 swift 1.3 <subsection>
17     <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 swift 1.1 <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.3 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23     (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 neysx 1.45 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25     them or not, etc.)
26 swift 1.1 </p>
27    
28     </body>
29 swift 1.3 </subsection>
30     <subsection>
31     <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35 swift 1.17 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 swift 1.9 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 swift 1.3 its own meaning:
38     </p>
39    
40     <ul>
41     <li>
42     The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43     file)
44     </li>
45     <li>
46     The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47     mounted
48     </li>
49     <li>
50     The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51     </li>
52     <li>
53     The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54     wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 swift 1.49 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 swift 1.9 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57 swift 1.3 </li>
58     <li>
59     The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60     be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61     </li>
62     <li>
63 swift 1.17 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64     filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65     The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 neysx 1.45 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 swift 1.3 </li>
68     </ul>
69    
70     <p>
71 swift 1.44 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
72     file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73 swift 1.3 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74     </p>
75    
76     <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78     </pre>
79    
80     <p>
81 swift 1.17 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82 swift 1.3 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83 swift 1.32 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
84 swift 1.3 </p>
85    
86     <p>
87     In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
88 swift 1.35 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
89     It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90 swift 1.3 </p>
91    
92     <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93 swift 1.35 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94 swift 1.3 </pre>
95    
96     <p>
97 swift 1.35 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98 swift 1.43 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99     substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100     manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101 swift 1.35 </p>
102    
103     <p>
104 swift 1.3 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
105 swift 1.27 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
106 swift 1.3 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107     </p>
108    
109     <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
110 swift 1.43 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
111 swift 1.3 </pre>
112    
113     <p>
114     If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
115     <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116     </p>
117    
118     <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
119 swift 1.43 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
120 swift 1.3 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
121     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
122     </pre>
123    
124     <p>
125     To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126 swift 1.7 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127 swift 1.3 partitions or drives, for those too):
128     </p>
129    
130     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
131 swift 1.54 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
132 vapier 1.47 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
133     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
134 swift 1.3
135 vapier 1.47 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
136     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
137 swift 1.3
138     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139     </pre>
140    
141     <p>
142     <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143     removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144     <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145     </p>
146    
147     <p>
148     Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
149 swift 1.32 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150     <path>/etc/fstab</path>
151 swift 1.3 too:
152     </p>
153    
154     <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155 swift 1.5 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156     </pre>
157    
158     <p>
159 neysx 1.34 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
160 swift 1.3 </p>
161    
162     </body>
163     </subsection>
164 swift 1.2 </section>
165     <section>
166 swift 1.1 <title>Networking Information</title>
167 swift 1.3 <subsection>
168     <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
169     <body>
170    
171     <p>
172 swift 1.33 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
173     quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
174     appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
175     choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
176 swift 1.3 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
177     </p>
178    
179     <p>
180     We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
181     </p>
182    
183     <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
184     # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
185     </pre>
186    
187     <p>
188     Second we set the domainname:
189     </p>
190    
191     <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
192     # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
193     </pre>
194    
195     <p>
196     If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
197     one), you need to define that one too:
198     </p>
199    
200     <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
201     # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
202 swift 1.12 </pre>
203    
204     <p>
205     Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
206     </p>
207    
208     <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
209     # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
210 swift 1.3 </pre>
211    
212     </body>
213     </subsection>
214     <subsection>
215     <title>Configuring your Network</title>
216     <body>
217    
218     <p>
219     Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
220 swift 1.27 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
221 swift 1.3 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
222     your Gentoo system permanently.
223     </p>
224    
225     <p>
226     All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
227 swift 1.48 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
228 swift 1.3 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
229     </p>
230    
231     <p>
232     First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
233     is used in this example):
234     </p>
235    
236     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
237     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
238     </pre>
239    
240 swift 1.58 <!-- Old baselayout - current stable -->
241    
242 swift 1.3 <p>
243     The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
244     syntax:
245     </p>
246    
247     <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
248     iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
249     </pre>
250    
251     <p>
252     If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
253 swift 1.21 to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
254 swift 1.48 If you need to set up your network manually and you're
255 swift 1.3 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
256 neysx 1.42 link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
257 swift 1.3 Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
258     </p>
259    
260     <p>
261 swift 1.23 So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
262     IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
263     gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
264     rp-pppoe usage:
265 swift 1.3 </p>
266    
267     <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
268 swift 1.27 <comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
269 swift 1.3 iface_eth0="dhcp"
270 swift 1.38 <comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
271     <comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
272     <comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
273     <comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
274 neysx 1.36 dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
275 swift 1.38 <comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
276     <comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
277 neysx 1.36 dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
278 swift 1.3
279 swift 1.27 <comment>(For static IP)</comment>
280 swift 1.3 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
281     gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
282 swift 1.23
283 swift 1.27 <comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
284 swift 1.23 iface_eth0="up"
285 swift 1.3 </pre>
286    
287     <p>
288     If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
289     like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
290     shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
291     </p>
292    
293 swift 1.58 <!-- New baselayout - current testing
294    
295     <p>
296     The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
297     imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
298     needs to automatically obtain an IP through DHCP, you should set it like so:
299     </p>
300    
301     <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP for eth0">
302     config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
303     </pre>
304    
305     <p>
306     However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
307     to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
308     </p>
309    
310     <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
311     config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
312     routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
313     </pre>
314    
315     <p>
316     If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
317     <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
318     </p>
319    
320     -->
321    
322 swift 1.3 <p>
323     Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
324     </p>
325    
326     </body>
327     </subsection>
328     <subsection>
329     <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
330 swift 1.1 <body>
331    
332     <p>
333 neysx 1.45 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
334 swift 1.3 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
335     the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
336     </p>
337    
338     <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
339     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
340     </pre>
341    
342     <p>
343     If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
344     <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
345     use <c>ln</c> to do this:
346 swift 1.1 </p>
347    
348 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
349     # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
350     # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
351     # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
352     </pre>
353    
354 swift 1.1 </body>
355 swift 1.3 </subsection>
356     <subsection>
357     <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
358     <body>
359    
360     <p>
361     You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
362     <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
363     for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
364     internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
365 swift 1.14 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
366 swift 1.3 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
367     </p>
368    
369     <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
370     # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
371     </pre>
372    
373     <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
374 swift 1.14 127.0.0.1 localhost
375 swift 1.22 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
376     192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
377     192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
378 swift 1.3 </pre>
379    
380     <p>
381     If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
382 swift 1.39 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
383 swift 1.53 system <c>tux</c>:
384 swift 1.3 </p>
385    
386     <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
387 swift 1.53 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
388 swift 1.3 </pre>
389    
390     <p>
391     Save and exit the editor to continue.
392     </p>
393    
394     <p>
395     If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
396 swift 1.20 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
397 swift 1.3 following topic on PCMCIA.
398     </p>
399    
400     </body>
401     </subsection>
402     <subsection>
403     <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
404     <body>
405    
406 swift 1.31 <note>
407     pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
408     </note>
409    
410 swift 1.3 <p>
411 swift 1.46 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
412     includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
413     using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
414     to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
415 swift 1.3 </p>
416    
417     <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
418 swift 1.30 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
419 swift 1.3 </pre>
420    
421     <p>
422 swift 1.19 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
423 swift 1.3 runlevel:
424     </p>
425    
426 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
427     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
428 swift 1.3 </pre>
429    
430     </body>
431     </subsection>
432 swift 1.2 </section>
433     <section>
434 swift 1.1 <title>System Information</title>
435 swift 1.41 <subsection>
436     <title>Root Password</title>
437     <body>
438    
439     <p>
440     First we set the root password by typing:
441     </p>
442    
443     <pre caption="Setting the root password">
444     # <i>passwd</i>
445     </pre>
446    
447     <p>
448     If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
449     <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
450     </p>
451    
452     <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
453     # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
454     </pre>
455    
456     </body>
457     </subsection>
458     <subsection>
459     <title>System Information</title>
460 swift 1.1 <body>
461    
462     <p>
463 swift 1.3 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
464     Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
465     </p>
466    
467     <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
468     # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
469     </pre>
470    
471     <p>
472     As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
473 swift 1.16 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
474     you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
475     your keyboard.
476     </p>
477    
478     <note>
479 swift 1.32 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
480     select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
481 swift 1.16 </note>
482    
483     <p>
484 swift 1.32 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
485     ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
486     to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
487 swift 1.29 </p>
488    
489     <p>
490 swift 1.59 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
491     </p>
492    
493     <p>
494     If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
495     <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
496     </p>
497    
498     </body>
499     </subsection>
500     <subsection>
501     <title>Configuring the Console</title>
502     <body>
503    
504     <note>
505     The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
506     </note>
507    
508     <p>
509     If you are running gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
510     the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
511     </p>
512    
513     <pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
514     hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
515     </pre>
516    
517     <p>
518     You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
519     System Tools</uri>.
520 swift 1.1 </p>
521    
522     </body>
523 swift 1.41 </subsection>
524 swift 1.1 </section>
525 swift 1.2 </sections>

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