/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.6 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Tue Nov 4 17:50:28 2003 UTC (10 years, 10 months ago) by swift
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.5: +1 -1 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Fix some minor twitches, plus a wrong sequence

1 swift 1.4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3    
4 swift 1.2 <sections>
5 swift 1.1 <section>
6     <title>Timezone</title>
7     <body>
8    
9     <p>
10 swift 1.3 You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
11     located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
12     symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
13 swift 1.1 </p>
14    
15 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
16     # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
17     <comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
18 swift 1.6 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
19 swift 1.3 </pre>
20    
21 swift 1.1 </body>
22 swift 1.2 </section>
23     <section>
24 swift 1.1 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
25 swift 1.3 <subsection>
26     <title>What is fstab?</title>
27 swift 1.1 <body>
28    
29     <p>
30 swift 1.3 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
31     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
32     (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
33     (special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
34     etc.).
35 swift 1.1 </p>
36    
37     </body>
38 swift 1.3 </subsection>
39     <subsection>
40     <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
41     <body>
42    
43     <p>
44     <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six
45     fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
46     its own meaning:
47     </p>
48    
49     <ul>
50     <li>
51     The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
52     file)
53     </li>
54     <li>
55     The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
56     mounted
57     </li>
58     <li>
59     The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
60     </li>
61     <li>
62     The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
63     wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
64     you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
65     listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated.
66     </li>
67     <li>
68     The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
69     be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
70     </li>
71     <li>
72     The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should
73     be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem
74     should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case
75     a filesystem check isn't necessary).
76     </li>
77     </ul>
78    
79     <p>
80     So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
81     <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
82     </p>
83    
84     <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
85     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
86     </pre>
87    
88     <p>
89     Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90     partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
91     <path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim.
92     </p>
93    
94     <p>
95     In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
96     <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't
97     be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we
98     would write down:
99     </p>
100    
101     <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2
103     </pre>
104    
105     <p>
106     Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
107     option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
108     aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
109     </p>
110    
111     <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
112     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
113     </pre>
114    
115     <p>
116     If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
117     <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
118     </p>
119    
120     <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
121     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
122     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
123     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
124     </pre>
125    
126     <p>
127     To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
128     (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and ofcourse, if you have other
129     partitions or drives, for those too):
130     </p>
131    
132     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
133     /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
134     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
135     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
136    
137     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
138     none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
139    
140     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141     </pre>
142    
143     <p>
144     <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
145     removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
146     <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
147     </p>
148    
149     <p>
150     Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
151     SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path>
152     too:
153     </p>
154    
155     <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
156 swift 1.5 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
157     </pre>
158    
159     <p>
160     If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
161     </p>
162    
163     <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
164     none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
165 swift 1.3 </pre>
166    
167     <p>
168     Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
169     </p>
170    
171     </body>
172     </subsection>
173 swift 1.2 </section>
174     <section>
175 swift 1.1 <title>Networking Information</title>
176 swift 1.3 <subsection>
177     <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
178     <body>
179    
180     <p>
181     One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite
182     easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate
183     name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can
184     be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
185     <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
186     </p>
187    
188     <p>
189     We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
190     </p>
191    
192     <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
193     # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
194     </pre>
195    
196     <p>
197     Second we set the domainname:
198     </p>
199    
200     <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
201     # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
202     </pre>
203    
204     <p>
205     If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
206     one), you need to define that one too:
207     </p>
208    
209     <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
210     # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
211     </pre>
212    
213     </body>
214     </subsection>
215     <subsection>
216     <title>Configuring your Network</title>
217     <body>
218    
219     <p>
220     Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
221     that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
222     just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
223     your Gentoo system permanently.
224     </p>
225    
226     <p>
227     All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
228     a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
229     networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
230     </p>
231    
232     <p>
233     First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
234     is used in this example):
235     </p>
236    
237     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
238     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
239     </pre>
240    
241     <p>
242     The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
243     syntax:
244     </p>
245    
246     <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
247     iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
248     </pre>
249    
250     <p>
251     If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
252     to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're
253     not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
254     link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
255     Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
256     </p>
257    
258     <p>
259     So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP
260     (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway
261     192.168.0.1:
262     </p>
263    
264     <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
265     <comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
266     iface_eth0="dhcp"
267    
268     <comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
269     iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
270     gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
271     </pre>
272    
273     <p>
274     If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
275     like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
276     shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
277     </p>
278    
279     <p>
280     Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
281     </p>
282    
283     </body>
284     </subsection>
285     <subsection>
286     <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
287 swift 1.1 <body>
288    
289     <p>
290 swift 1.3 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
291     default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
292     the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
293     </p>
294    
295     <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
296     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
297     </pre>
298    
299     <p>
300     If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
301     <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
302     use <c>ln</c> to do this:
303 swift 1.1 </p>
304    
305 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
306     # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
307     # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
308     # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
309     </pre>
310    
311 swift 1.1 </body>
312 swift 1.3 </subsection>
313     <subsection>
314     <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
315     <body>
316    
317     <p>
318     You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
319     <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
320     for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
321     internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
322     <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would
323     open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
324     </p>
325    
326     <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
327     # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
328     </pre>
329    
330     <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
331 swift 1.5 127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork localhost
332 swift 1.3 192.168.0.5 jenny
333     192.168.0.56 benny
334     </pre>
335    
336     <p>
337     If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
338     resolution) a single line is sufficient:
339     </p>
340    
341     <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
342     127.0.0.1 localhost tux
343     </pre>
344    
345     <p>
346     Save and exit the editor to continue.
347     </p>
348    
349     <p>
350     If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
351     link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
352     following topic on PCMCIA.
353     </p>
354    
355     </body>
356     </subsection>
357     <subsection>
358     <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
359     <body>
360    
361     <p>
362     PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package:
363     </p>
364    
365     <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
366     # <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i>
367     </pre>
368    
369     <p>
370     When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e>
371     runlevel:
372     </p>
373    
374     <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
375     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
376     </pre>
377    
378     </body>
379     </subsection>
380 swift 1.2 </section>
381     <section>
382 swift 1.1 <title>System Information</title>
383     <body>
384    
385     <p>
386 swift 1.3 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
387     Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
388     </p>
389    
390     <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
391     # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
392     </pre>
393    
394     <p>
395     As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
396     configuration variables. When you're finished configuring
397     <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue.
398 swift 1.1 </p>
399    
400     </body>
401     </section>
402 swift 1.2 </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20