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1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 fox2mike 1.68 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.4
7 fox2mike 1.68 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.67 2005/06/24 18:47:21 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.8
9 swift 1.2 <sections>
10 swift 1.50
11 fox2mike 1.67 <version>2.9</version>
12     <date>2005-06-24</date>
13 swift 1.50
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 swift 1.3 <subsection>
17     <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 swift 1.1 <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.3 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23     (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 neysx 1.45 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25     them or not, etc.)
26 swift 1.1 </p>
27    
28     </body>
29 swift 1.3 </subsection>
30     <subsection>
31     <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35 swift 1.17 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 swift 1.9 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 swift 1.3 its own meaning:
38     </p>
39    
40     <ul>
41     <li>
42     The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43     file)
44     </li>
45     <li>
46     The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47     mounted
48     </li>
49     <li>
50     The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51     </li>
52     <li>
53     The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54     wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 swift 1.49 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 swift 1.9 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57 swift 1.3 </li>
58     <li>
59     The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60     be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61     </li>
62     <li>
63 swift 1.17 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64     filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65     The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 neysx 1.45 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 swift 1.3 </li>
68     </ul>
69    
70     <p>
71 swift 1.44 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
72     file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73 swift 1.3 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74     </p>
75    
76     <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78     </pre>
79    
80     <p>
81 swift 1.17 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82 swift 1.3 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83 swift 1.32 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
84 swift 1.3 </p>
85    
86     <p>
87     In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
88 swift 1.35 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
89     It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90 swift 1.3 </p>
91    
92     <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93 swift 1.35 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94 swift 1.3 </pre>
95    
96     <p>
97 swift 1.35 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98 swift 1.43 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99     substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100     manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101 swift 1.35 </p>
102    
103     <p>
104 swift 1.3 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
105 swift 1.27 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
106 swift 1.3 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107     </p>
108    
109     <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
110 swift 1.43 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
111 swift 1.3 </pre>
112    
113     <p>
114     If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
115     <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116     </p>
117    
118     <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
119 swift 1.43 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
120 swift 1.3 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
121     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
122     </pre>
123    
124     <p>
125     To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126 swift 1.7 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127 swift 1.3 partitions or drives, for those too):
128     </p>
129    
130     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
131 swift 1.54 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
132 vapier 1.47 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
133     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
134 swift 1.3
135 vapier 1.47 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
136     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
137 swift 1.3
138     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139     </pre>
140    
141     <p>
142     <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143     removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144     <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145     </p>
146    
147     <p>
148     Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
149 swift 1.32 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150     <path>/etc/fstab</path>
151 swift 1.3 too:
152     </p>
153    
154     <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155 swift 1.5 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156     </pre>
157    
158     <p>
159 neysx 1.34 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
160 swift 1.3 </p>
161    
162     </body>
163     </subsection>
164 swift 1.2 </section>
165     <section>
166 swift 1.1 <title>Networking Information</title>
167 swift 1.3 <subsection>
168     <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
169     <body>
170    
171     <p>
172 swift 1.33 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
173     quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
174     appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
175     choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
176 swift 1.3 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
177     </p>
178    
179     <p>
180     We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
181     </p>
182    
183     <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
184 swift 1.66 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
185    
186     <comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
187     HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
188 swift 1.3 </pre>
189    
190     <p>
191     Second we set the domainname:
192     </p>
193    
194     <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195 swift 1.66 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
196    
197     <comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
198     DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
199 swift 1.3 </pre>
200    
201     <p>
202     If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
203     one), you need to define that one too:
204     </p>
205    
206     <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
207 swift 1.66 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
208    
209     <comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
210     NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
211 swift 1.12 </pre>
212    
213     <p>
214     Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
215     </p>
216    
217     <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
218     # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
219 swift 1.3 </pre>
220    
221     </body>
222     </subsection>
223     <subsection>
224     <title>Configuring your Network</title>
225     <body>
226    
227     <p>
228     Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
229 fox2mike 1.67 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
230 swift 1.3 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
231     your Gentoo system permanently.
232     </p>
233    
234 fox2mike 1.65 <note>
235     More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
236     bonding, bridging, 802.11q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
237     link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
238     </note>
239    
240 swift 1.3 <p>
241     All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
242 swift 1.48 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
243 swift 1.3 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
244     </p>
245    
246     <p>
247     First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
248     is used in this example):
249     </p>
250    
251     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
252     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
253     </pre>
254    
255 swift 1.58 <p>
256     The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
257     imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
258 swift 1.63 needs to automatically obtain an IP address through DHCP, you should set it
259     like so:
260 swift 1.58 </p>
261    
262 fox2mike 1.64 <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
263 swift 1.58 config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
264     </pre>
265    
266     <p>
267     However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
268     to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
269     </p>
270    
271     <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
272     config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
273     routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
274     </pre>
275    
276     <p>
277     If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
278     <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
279     </p>
280    
281 swift 1.3 <p>
282     Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
283     </p>
284    
285     </body>
286     </subsection>
287     <subsection>
288     <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
289 swift 1.1 <body>
290    
291     <p>
292 neysx 1.45 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
293 swift 1.3 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
294     the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
295     </p>
296    
297     <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
298     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
299     </pre>
300    
301     <p>
302     If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
303     <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
304     use <c>ln</c> to do this:
305 swift 1.1 </p>
306    
307 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
308     # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
309     # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
310     # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
311     </pre>
312    
313 swift 1.1 </body>
314 swift 1.3 </subsection>
315     <subsection>
316     <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
317     <body>
318    
319     <p>
320     You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
321     <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
322     for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
323     internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
324 swift 1.14 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
325 swift 1.3 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
326     </p>
327    
328     <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
329     # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
330     </pre>
331    
332     <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
333 swift 1.14 127.0.0.1 localhost
334 swift 1.22 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
335     192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
336     192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
337 swift 1.3 </pre>
338    
339     <p>
340     If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
341 swift 1.39 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
342 swift 1.53 system <c>tux</c>:
343 swift 1.3 </p>
344    
345     <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
346 swift 1.53 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
347 swift 1.3 </pre>
348    
349     <p>
350     Save and exit the editor to continue.
351     </p>
352    
353     <p>
354     If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
355 swift 1.20 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
356 swift 1.3 following topic on PCMCIA.
357     </p>
358    
359     </body>
360     </subsection>
361     <subsection>
362     <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
363     <body>
364    
365 swift 1.31 <note>
366     pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
367     </note>
368    
369 swift 1.3 <p>
370 swift 1.46 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
371     includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
372     using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
373     to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
374 swift 1.3 </p>
375    
376     <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
377 swift 1.30 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
378 swift 1.3 </pre>
379    
380     <p>
381 swift 1.19 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
382 swift 1.3 runlevel:
383     </p>
384    
385 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
386     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
387 swift 1.3 </pre>
388    
389     </body>
390     </subsection>
391 swift 1.2 </section>
392     <section>
393 swift 1.1 <title>System Information</title>
394 swift 1.41 <subsection>
395     <title>Root Password</title>
396     <body>
397    
398     <p>
399     First we set the root password by typing:
400     </p>
401    
402     <pre caption="Setting the root password">
403     # <i>passwd</i>
404     </pre>
405    
406     <p>
407     If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
408     <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
409     </p>
410    
411     <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
412     # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
413     </pre>
414    
415     </body>
416     </subsection>
417     <subsection>
418     <title>System Information</title>
419 swift 1.1 <body>
420    
421     <p>
422 swift 1.3 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
423     Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
424     </p>
425    
426     <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
427     # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
428     </pre>
429    
430     <p>
431 fox2mike 1.67 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
432     </p>
433    
434     <p>
435 swift 1.3 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
436 fox2mike 1.67 configuration variables. Among other settings, you can configure your console
437     fonts, your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
438     </p>
439    
440     <p>
441     Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
442     Edit it to configure your keyboard.
443     </p>
444    
445     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
446     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
447     </pre>
448    
449     <p>
450     Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
451     <c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
452 swift 1.16 </p>
453    
454     <note>
455 swift 1.32 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
456     select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
457 swift 1.16 </note>
458    
459     <p>
460 swift 1.32 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
461     ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
462 fox2mike 1.67 to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
463     </p>
464    
465     <p>
466     When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
467     exit.
468     </p>
469    
470     <p>
471     Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
472     according to your needs.
473 swift 1.29 </p>
474    
475 fox2mike 1.67 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
476     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
477     </pre>
478    
479 swift 1.29 <p>
480 swift 1.61 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
481     the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
482     </p>
483    
484     <p>
485 fox2mike 1.67 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
486     exit.
487 swift 1.59 </p>
488    
489     <p>
490     If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
491     <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
492     </p>
493    
494     </body>
495     </subsection>
496     <subsection>
497     <title>Configuring the Console</title>
498     <body>
499    
500     <note>
501     The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
502     </note>
503    
504     <p>
505 neysx 1.60 If you are running Gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
506 swift 1.59 the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
507     </p>
508    
509     <pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
510     hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
511     </pre>
512    
513     <p>
514     You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
515     System Tools</uri>.
516 swift 1.1 </p>
517    
518     </body>
519 swift 1.41 </subsection>
520 swift 1.1 </section>
521 swift 1.2 </sections>

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