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Mon May 15 07:00:22 2006 UTC (8 years, 1 month ago) by nightmorph
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File MIME type: application/xml
Fixed fstab grammar for bug 133348; thanks to chriswhite for reporting.

1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 fox2mike 1.68 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.4
7 nightmorph 1.77 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.76 2006/03/28 10:35:59 neysx Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.8
9 swift 1.2 <sections>
10 swift 1.50
11 neysx 1.76 <version>2.18</version>
12     <date>2006-03-28</date>
13 swift 1.50
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 swift 1.3 <subsection>
17     <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 swift 1.1 <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.3 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22     <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23     (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 neysx 1.45 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25     them or not, etc.)
26 swift 1.1 </p>
27    
28     </body>
29 swift 1.3 </subsection>
30     <subsection>
31     <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35 swift 1.17 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 swift 1.9 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 swift 1.3 its own meaning:
38     </p>
39    
40     <ul>
41     <li>
42     The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43     file)
44     </li>
45     <li>
46     The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47     mounted
48     </li>
49     <li>
50     The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51     </li>
52     <li>
53     The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54     wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 swift 1.49 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 swift 1.9 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57 swift 1.3 </li>
58     <li>
59     The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60     be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61     </li>
62     <li>
63 swift 1.17 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64     filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65     The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 neysx 1.45 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 swift 1.3 </li>
68     </ul>
69    
70     <p>
71 nightmorph 1.77 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72     fstab file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73 swift 1.3 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74     </p>
75    
76     <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78     </pre>
79    
80     <p>
81 swift 1.17 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82 swift 1.3 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83 fox2mike 1.75 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as Apple <b>PPC</b> machines), don't copy it
84     verbatim.
85 swift 1.3 </p>
86    
87     <p>
88     In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
89 swift 1.35 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
90     It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
91 swift 1.3 </p>
92    
93     <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
94 swift 1.35 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
95 swift 1.3 </pre>
96    
97     <p>
98 swift 1.35 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
99 swift 1.43 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
100     substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
101     manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
102 swift 1.35 </p>
103    
104     <p>
105 swift 1.3 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
106 swift 1.27 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
107 swift 1.3 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
108     </p>
109    
110     <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
111 swift 1.43 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
112 swift 1.3 </pre>
113    
114     <p>
115     If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
116     <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
117     </p>
118    
119     <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
120 swift 1.43 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
121 swift 1.3 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123     </pre>
124    
125     <p>
126     To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
127 swift 1.7 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
128 swift 1.3 partitions or drives, for those too):
129     </p>
130    
131     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
132 swift 1.54 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
133 vapier 1.47 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
134     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
135 swift 1.3
136 vapier 1.47 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138 swift 1.3
139     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140     </pre>
141    
142     <p>
143     <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
144     removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
145     <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
146     </p>
147    
148     <p>
149     Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
150 swift 1.32 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
151     <path>/etc/fstab</path>
152 swift 1.3 too:
153     </p>
154    
155     <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
156 swift 1.5 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
157     </pre>
158    
159     <p>
160 neysx 1.34 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
161 swift 1.3 </p>
162    
163     </body>
164     </subsection>
165 swift 1.2 </section>
166     <section>
167 swift 1.1 <title>Networking Information</title>
168 swift 1.3 <subsection>
169     <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
170     <body>
171    
172     <p>
173 swift 1.33 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
174     quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
175     appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
176     choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
177 swift 1.3 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
178     </p>
179    
180     <p>
181     We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
182     </p>
183    
184     <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
185 swift 1.66 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
186    
187     <comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
188     HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
189 swift 1.3 </pre>
190    
191     <p>
192     Second we set the domainname:
193     </p>
194    
195     <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
196 swift 1.66 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
197    
198     <comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
199     DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
200 swift 1.3 </pre>
201    
202     <p>
203     If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
204     one), you need to define that one too:
205     </p>
206    
207     <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
208 swift 1.66 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
209    
210     <comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
211     NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
212 swift 1.12 </pre>
213    
214 swift 1.3 </body>
215     </subsection>
216     <subsection>
217     <title>Configuring your Network</title>
218     <body>
219    
220     <p>
221     Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
222 fox2mike 1.67 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
223 swift 1.3 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
224     your Gentoo system permanently.
225     </p>
226    
227 fox2mike 1.65 <note>
228     More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
229 swift 1.72 bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
230 fox2mike 1.65 link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
231     </note>
232    
233 swift 1.3 <p>
234     All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
235 swift 1.48 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
236 neysx 1.69 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
237     commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
238     <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
239 swift 1.3 </p>
240    
241     <p>
242 neysx 1.69 DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration.
243     </p>
244    
245     <p>
246     If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
247     specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
248     <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
249     this example):
250 swift 1.3 </p>
251    
252     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
253     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
254     </pre>
255    
256 swift 1.58 <p>
257 neysx 1.69 You will see the following file:
258 swift 1.58 </p>
259    
260 neysx 1.69 <pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
261     # This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
262     # scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
263     # please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
264     # in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
265 swift 1.58 </pre>
266    
267     <p>
268 neysx 1.69 To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
269 swift 1.58 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
270     </p>
271    
272     <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
273 swift 1.74 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
274 swift 1.58 routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
275     </pre>
276    
277     <p>
278 neysx 1.69 To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
279     <c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
280     </p>
281    
282     <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
283     config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
284     dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
285     </pre>
286    
287     <p>
288     Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
289     options.
290     </p>
291    
292     <p>
293 swift 1.58 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
294     <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
295     </p>
296    
297 swift 1.3 <p>
298     Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
299     </p>
300    
301     </body>
302     </subsection>
303     <subsection>
304     <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
305 swift 1.1 <body>
306    
307     <p>
308 neysx 1.45 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
309 swift 1.3 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
310     the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
311     </p>
312    
313     <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
314     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
315     </pre>
316    
317     <p>
318     If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
319     <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
320     use <c>ln</c> to do this:
321 swift 1.1 </p>
322    
323 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
324     # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
325     # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
326     # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
327     </pre>
328    
329 swift 1.1 </body>
330 swift 1.3 </subsection>
331     <subsection>
332     <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
333     <body>
334    
335     <p>
336     You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
337     <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
338     for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
339     internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
340 swift 1.14 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
341 swift 1.3 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
342     </p>
343    
344     <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
345     # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
346     </pre>
347    
348     <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
349 swift 1.14 127.0.0.1 localhost
350 swift 1.22 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
351     192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
352     192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
353 swift 1.3 </pre>
354    
355     <p>
356     If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
357 swift 1.39 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
358 swift 1.53 system <c>tux</c>:
359 swift 1.3 </p>
360    
361     <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
362 swift 1.53 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
363 swift 1.3 </pre>
364    
365     <p>
366     Save and exit the editor to continue.
367     </p>
368    
369     <p>
370     If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
371 swift 1.20 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
372 swift 1.3 following topic on PCMCIA.
373     </p>
374    
375     </body>
376     </subsection>
377     <subsection>
378     <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
379     <body>
380    
381 swift 1.31 <note>
382     pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
383     </note>
384    
385 swift 1.3 <p>
386 swift 1.46 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
387     includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
388     using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
389     to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
390 swift 1.3 </p>
391    
392     <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
393 swift 1.30 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
394 swift 1.3 </pre>
395    
396     <p>
397 swift 1.19 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
398 swift 1.3 runlevel:
399     </p>
400    
401 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
402     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
403 swift 1.3 </pre>
404    
405     </body>
406     </subsection>
407 swift 1.2 </section>
408     <section>
409 swift 1.1 <title>System Information</title>
410 swift 1.41 <subsection>
411     <title>Root Password</title>
412     <body>
413    
414     <p>
415     First we set the root password by typing:
416     </p>
417    
418     <pre caption="Setting the root password">
419     # <i>passwd</i>
420     </pre>
421    
422     <p>
423     If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
424     <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
425     </p>
426    
427     <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
428     # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
429     </pre>
430    
431     </body>
432     </subsection>
433     <subsection>
434     <title>System Information</title>
435 swift 1.1 <body>
436    
437     <p>
438 swift 1.3 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
439     Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
440     </p>
441    
442     <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
443     # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
444     </pre>
445    
446     <p>
447 fox2mike 1.67 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
448     </p>
449    
450     <p>
451 swift 1.3 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
452 neysx 1.69 configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
453     define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
454 fox2mike 1.67 </p>
455    
456     <p>
457     Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
458     Edit it to configure your keyboard.
459     </p>
460    
461     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
462     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
463     </pre>
464    
465     <p>
466     Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
467     <c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
468 swift 1.16 </p>
469    
470     <note>
471 swift 1.32 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
472 swift 1.70 select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86
473     keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot
474     have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc
475     keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
476 swift 1.16 </note>
477    
478     <p>
479 fox2mike 1.67 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
480     exit.
481     </p>
482    
483     <p>
484     Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
485     according to your needs.
486 swift 1.29 </p>
487    
488 fox2mike 1.67 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
489     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
490     </pre>
491    
492 swift 1.29 <p>
493 swift 1.61 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
494 jkt 1.73 the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows
495     assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
496     you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
497 swift 1.61 </p>
498    
499     <p>
500 fox2mike 1.67 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
501     exit.
502 swift 1.59 </p>
503    
504     <p>
505 swift 1.70 If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with
506 swift 1.59 <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
507     </p>
508    
509     </body>
510     </subsection>
511     <subsection>
512     <title>Configuring the Console</title>
513     <body>
514    
515     <note>
516 swift 1.70 The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
517 swift 1.59 </note>
518    
519     <p>
520 swift 1.70 If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console
521     you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the
522     virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
523 swift 1.59 </p>
524    
525 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
526     hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
527     hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
528 swift 1.59 </pre>
529    
530     <p>
531 swift 1.70 You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
532 jkt 1.71 listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
533 swift 1.70 </p>
534    
535     <p>
536 swift 1.59 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
537     System Tools</uri>.
538 swift 1.1 </p>
539    
540     </body>
541 swift 1.41 </subsection>
542 swift 1.1 </section>
543 swift 1.2 </sections>

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