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2006.1 networked docs are in. portage handbook still untouched per separate bugs. thanks to all the hard work, guys. blame me if something is wrong (and please fix quickly) :)

1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 fox2mike 1.68 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.4
7 nightmorph 1.81 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.80 2006/08/23 19:31:53 swift Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.8
9 swift 1.2 <sections>
10 swift 1.50
11 nightmorph 1.81 <version>7.0</version>
12     <date>2006-08-30</date>
13 swift 1.50
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 swift 1.3 <subsection>
17     <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 swift 1.1 <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.3 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22 neysx 1.79 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
23 swift 1.3 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 neysx 1.45 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25     them or not, etc.)
26 swift 1.1 </p>
27    
28     </body>
29 swift 1.3 </subsection>
30     <subsection>
31     <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35 swift 1.17 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 swift 1.9 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 swift 1.3 its own meaning:
38     </p>
39    
40     <ul>
41     <li>
42     The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43     file)
44     </li>
45     <li>
46 neysx 1.79 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
47 swift 1.3 mounted
48     </li>
49     <li>
50     The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51     </li>
52     <li>
53 neysx 1.79 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54     wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
55 swift 1.49 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 neysx 1.79 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
57 swift 1.3 </li>
58     <li>
59     The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60     be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61     </li>
62     <li>
63 swift 1.17 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64     filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65     The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 neysx 1.45 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 swift 1.3 </li>
68     </ul>
69    
70 neysx 1.79 <impo>
71 nightmorph 1.77 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72 neysx 1.79 fstab file</e>, You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73     </impo>
74 swift 1.3
75     <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
76     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
77     </pre>
78    
79 neysx 1.79 </body>
80     <body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
81    
82 swift 1.3 <p>
83 swift 1.17 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
84 neysx 1.79 partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
85     <path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
86 swift 1.3 </p>
87    
88 neysx 1.79 <p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
89     In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
90     usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
91     <path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
92     filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
93     </p>
94    
95     <p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
96     In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
97     usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
98     filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99 swift 1.3 </p>
100    
101     <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102 neysx 1.79 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
103 swift 1.3 </pre>
104    
105     <p>
106 swift 1.35 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
107 swift 1.43 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
108     substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
109     manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
110 swift 1.35 </p>
111    
112 neysx 1.79 </body>
113     <body>
114    
115     <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')">
116     Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
117     <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
118     you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
119     </p>
120    
121     <p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
122     Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
123     <path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
124     drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
125     </p>
126    
127 swift 1.35 <p>
128 neysx 1.79 Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
129 swift 1.3 </p>
130    
131 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
132     <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
133     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
134     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
135    
136     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138    
139     /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140 swift 1.3 </pre>
141    
142 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
143     <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
144     /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
145     /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
146    
147     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
148     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
149    
150     /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151     </pre>
152    
153     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
154     <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
155     /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
156     /dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
157    
158     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
159     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160    
161     /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
162     </pre>
163    
164     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
165     /dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
166     /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
167     /dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
168     /dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
169     /dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
170    
171     none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
172     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
173     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
174 swift 1.3
175 neysx 1.79 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
176 swift 1.3 </pre>
177    
178 neysx 1.79 <note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
179     There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
180     adapt the following example to your system.
181     </note>
182    
183     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
184     /dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
185     /dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
186    
187     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
188     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
189    
190     /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
191     </pre>
192 swift 1.3
193 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
194     /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
195     /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
196 swift 1.3
197 neysx 1.79 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
198     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
199 swift 1.3
200 neysx 1.79 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
201 swift 1.3 </pre>
202    
203     <p>
204     <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
205     removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
206     <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
207     </p>
208    
209     <p>
210 neysx 1.79 To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
211     mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
212     aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
213 swift 1.3 </p>
214    
215 swift 1.5 <p>
216 neysx 1.34 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
217 swift 1.3 </p>
218    
219     </body>
220     </subsection>
221 swift 1.2 </section>
222     <section>
223 swift 1.1 <title>Networking Information</title>
224 swift 1.3 <subsection>
225 neysx 1.79 <title>Host name</title>
226 swift 1.3 <body>
227    
228     <p>
229 swift 1.33 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
230     quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
231     appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
232     choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
233 swift 1.3 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
234     </p>
235    
236 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="Setting the host name">
237 swift 1.66 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
238    
239 neysx 1.79 <comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment>
240 swift 1.66 HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
241 swift 1.3 </pre>
242    
243     </body>
244     </subsection>
245     <subsection>
246     <title>Configuring your Network</title>
247     <body>
248    
249     <p>
250     Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
251 fox2mike 1.67 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
252 swift 1.3 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
253     your Gentoo system permanently.
254     </p>
255    
256 fox2mike 1.65 <note>
257     More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
258 swift 1.72 bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
259 fox2mike 1.65 link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
260     </note>
261    
262 swift 1.3 <p>
263     All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
264 swift 1.48 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
265 neysx 1.69 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
266     commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
267     <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
268 swift 1.3 </p>
269    
270     <p>
271 neysx 1.69 DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration.
272     </p>
273    
274     <p>
275     If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
276     specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
277     <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
278     this example):
279 swift 1.3 </p>
280    
281     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
282     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
283     </pre>
284    
285 swift 1.58 <p>
286 neysx 1.69 You will see the following file:
287 swift 1.58 </p>
288    
289 neysx 1.69 <pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
290     # This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
291     # scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
292     # please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
293     # in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
294 swift 1.58 </pre>
295    
296     <p>
297 neysx 1.69 To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
298 swift 1.58 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
299     </p>
300    
301     <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
302 swift 1.74 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
303 swift 1.58 routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
304     </pre>
305    
306     <p>
307 neysx 1.69 To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
308     <c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
309     </p>
310    
311     <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
312     config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
313     dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
314     </pre>
315    
316     <p>
317     Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
318     options.
319     </p>
320    
321     <p>
322 swift 1.58 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
323     <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
324     </p>
325    
326 swift 1.3 <p>
327     Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
328     </p>
329    
330     </body>
331     </subsection>
332     <subsection>
333     <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
334 swift 1.1 <body>
335    
336     <p>
337 neysx 1.45 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
338 swift 1.3 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
339     the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
340     </p>
341    
342     <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
343     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
344     </pre>
345    
346     <p>
347     If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
348     <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
349     use <c>ln</c> to do this:
350 swift 1.1 </p>
351    
352 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
353     # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
354 swift 1.80 # <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
355 swift 1.3 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
356     </pre>
357    
358 swift 1.1 </body>
359 swift 1.3 </subsection>
360     <subsection>
361     <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
362     <body>
363    
364     <p>
365     You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
366 neysx 1.79 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
367 neysx 1.78 hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
368     You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
369     set up your own internal DNS system.
370 swift 1.3 </p>
371    
372     <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
373     # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
374     </pre>
375    
376     <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
377 neysx 1.78 <comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
378     127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
379    
380     <comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
381     they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
382 swift 1.22 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
383     192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
384 swift 1.3 </pre>
385    
386     <p>
387     Save and exit the editor to continue.
388     </p>
389    
390 neysx 1.79 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
391 swift 1.3 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
392 neysx 1.79 link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
393 swift 1.3 following topic on PCMCIA.
394     </p>
395    
396     </body>
397     </subsection>
398 neysx 1.79 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
399 swift 1.3 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
400     <body>
401    
402     <p>
403 swift 1.46 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
404     includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
405     using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
406     to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
407 swift 1.3 </p>
408    
409     <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
410 swift 1.30 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
411 swift 1.3 </pre>
412    
413     <p>
414 swift 1.19 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
415 swift 1.3 runlevel:
416     </p>
417    
418 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
419     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
420 swift 1.3 </pre>
421    
422     </body>
423     </subsection>
424 swift 1.2 </section>
425 neysx 1.79
426     <section id="sysinfo">
427 swift 1.1 <title>System Information</title>
428 swift 1.41 <subsection>
429     <title>Root Password</title>
430     <body>
431    
432     <p>
433     First we set the root password by typing:
434     </p>
435    
436     <pre caption="Setting the root password">
437     # <i>passwd</i>
438     </pre>
439    
440     <p>
441     If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
442     <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
443     </p>
444    
445     <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
446     # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
447     </pre>
448    
449     </body>
450     </subsection>
451     <subsection>
452     <title>System Information</title>
453 swift 1.1 <body>
454    
455     <p>
456 swift 1.3 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
457     Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
458     </p>
459    
460     <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
461     # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
462     </pre>
463    
464     <p>
465 fox2mike 1.67 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
466     </p>
467    
468     <p>
469 swift 1.3 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
470 neysx 1.69 configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
471     define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
472 fox2mike 1.67 </p>
473    
474     <p>
475     Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
476     Edit it to configure your keyboard.
477     </p>
478    
479     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
480     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
481     </pre>
482    
483     <p>
484     Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
485     <c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
486 swift 1.16 </p>
487    
488 neysx 1.79 <note test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
489     Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
490     keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
491     </note>
492    
493     <note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
494     PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB
495     keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
496     set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
497 swift 1.16 </note>
498    
499     <p>
500 fox2mike 1.67 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
501     exit.
502     </p>
503    
504     <p>
505     Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
506     according to your needs.
507 swift 1.29 </p>
508    
509 fox2mike 1.67 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
510     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
511     </pre>
512    
513 swift 1.29 <p>
514 swift 1.61 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
515 jkt 1.73 the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows
516     assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
517     you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
518 swift 1.61 </p>
519    
520     <p>
521 fox2mike 1.67 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
522     exit.
523 swift 1.59 </p>
524    
525 neysx 1.79 <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
526     Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
527     Tools</uri>.
528 swift 1.59 </p>
529    
530     </body>
531     </subsection>
532 neysx 1.79 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
533 swift 1.59 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
534     <body>
535    
536     <p>
537 neysx 1.79 If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
538     <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
539 swift 1.59 </p>
540    
541 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
542     hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
543     hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
544 swift 1.59 </pre>
545    
546     <p>
547 swift 1.70 You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
548 jkt 1.71 listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
549 swift 1.70 </p>
550    
551     <p>
552 swift 1.59 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
553     System Tools</uri>.
554 swift 1.1 </p>
555    
556     </body>
557 swift 1.41 </subsection>
558 swift 1.1 </section>
559 swift 1.2 </sections>

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