/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.83 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Fri Sep 8 10:53:26 2006 UTC (8 years, 1 month ago) by neysx
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.82: +7 -4 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
#138524 Make the need for a dhcp client more explicit

1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 fox2mike 1.68 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.4
7 neysx 1.83 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.82 2006/09/04 09:11:39 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.8
9 swift 1.2 <sections>
10 swift 1.50
11 neysx 1.83 <version>7.2</version>
12     <date>2006-09-08</date>
13 swift 1.50
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 swift 1.3 <subsection>
17     <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 swift 1.1 <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.3 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22 neysx 1.79 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
23 swift 1.3 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 neysx 1.45 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25     them or not, etc.)
26 swift 1.1 </p>
27    
28     </body>
29 swift 1.3 </subsection>
30     <subsection>
31     <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35 swift 1.17 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 swift 1.9 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 swift 1.3 its own meaning:
38     </p>
39    
40     <ul>
41     <li>
42     The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43     file)
44     </li>
45     <li>
46 neysx 1.79 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
47 swift 1.3 mounted
48     </li>
49     <li>
50     The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51     </li>
52     <li>
53 neysx 1.79 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54     wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
55 swift 1.49 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 neysx 1.79 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
57 swift 1.3 </li>
58     <li>
59     The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60     be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61     </li>
62     <li>
63 swift 1.17 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64     filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65     The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 neysx 1.45 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 swift 1.3 </li>
68     </ul>
69    
70 neysx 1.79 <impo>
71 nightmorph 1.77 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72 neysx 1.79 fstab file</e>, You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73     </impo>
74 swift 1.3
75     <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
76     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
77     </pre>
78    
79 neysx 1.79 </body>
80     <body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
81    
82 swift 1.3 <p>
83 swift 1.17 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
84 neysx 1.79 partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
85     <path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
86 swift 1.3 </p>
87    
88 neysx 1.79 <p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
89     In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
90     usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
91     <path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
92     filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
93     </p>
94    
95     <p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
96     In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
97     usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
98     filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99 swift 1.3 </p>
100    
101     <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102 neysx 1.79 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
103 swift 1.3 </pre>
104    
105     <p>
106 swift 1.35 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
107 swift 1.43 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
108     substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
109     manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
110 swift 1.35 </p>
111    
112 neysx 1.79 </body>
113     <body>
114    
115     <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')">
116     Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
117     <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
118     you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
119     </p>
120    
121     <p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
122     Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
123     <path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
124     drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
125     </p>
126    
127 swift 1.35 <p>
128 neysx 1.79 Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
129 swift 1.3 </p>
130    
131 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
132     <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
133     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
134     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
135    
136     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138    
139     /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140 swift 1.3 </pre>
141    
142 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
143     <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
144     /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
145     /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
146    
147     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
148     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
149    
150     /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151     </pre>
152    
153     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
154     <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
155     /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
156     /dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
157    
158     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
159     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160    
161     /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
162     </pre>
163    
164     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
165     /dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
166     /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
167     /dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
168     /dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
169     /dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
170    
171     none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
172     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
173     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
174 swift 1.3
175 neysx 1.79 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
176 swift 1.3 </pre>
177    
178 neysx 1.79 <note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
179     There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
180     adapt the following example to your system.
181     </note>
182    
183     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
184     /dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
185     /dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
186    
187     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
188     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
189    
190     /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
191     </pre>
192 swift 1.3
193 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
194     /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
195     /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
196 swift 1.3
197 neysx 1.79 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
198     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
199 swift 1.3
200 neysx 1.79 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
201 swift 1.3 </pre>
202    
203     <p>
204     <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
205     removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
206     <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
207     </p>
208    
209     <p>
210 neysx 1.79 To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
211     mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
212     aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
213 swift 1.3 </p>
214    
215 swift 1.5 <p>
216 neysx 1.34 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
217 swift 1.3 </p>
218    
219     </body>
220     </subsection>
221 swift 1.2 </section>
222     <section>
223 swift 1.1 <title>Networking Information</title>
224 swift 1.3 <subsection>
225 neysx 1.79 <title>Host name</title>
226 swift 1.3 <body>
227    
228     <p>
229 swift 1.33 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
230     quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
231     appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
232     choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
233 swift 1.3 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
234     </p>
235    
236 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="Setting the host name">
237 swift 1.66 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
238    
239 neysx 1.79 <comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment>
240 swift 1.66 HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
241 swift 1.3 </pre>
242    
243     </body>
244     </subsection>
245     <subsection>
246     <title>Configuring your Network</title>
247     <body>
248    
249     <p>
250     Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
251 fox2mike 1.67 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
252 swift 1.3 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
253     your Gentoo system permanently.
254     </p>
255    
256 fox2mike 1.65 <note>
257     More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
258 swift 1.72 bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
259 fox2mike 1.65 link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
260     </note>
261    
262 swift 1.3 <p>
263     All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
264 swift 1.48 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
265 neysx 1.69 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
266     commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
267     <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
268 swift 1.3 </p>
269    
270     <p>
271 neysx 1.83 DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
272     client. This is described later in <uri
273     link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
274     Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
275 neysx 1.69 </p>
276    
277     <p>
278     If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
279     specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
280     <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
281     this example):
282 swift 1.3 </p>
283    
284     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
285     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
286     </pre>
287    
288 swift 1.58 <p>
289 neysx 1.69 You will see the following file:
290 swift 1.58 </p>
291    
292 neysx 1.69 <pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
293     # This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
294     # scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
295     # please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
296     # in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
297 swift 1.58 </pre>
298    
299     <p>
300 neysx 1.69 To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
301 swift 1.58 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
302     </p>
303    
304     <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
305 swift 1.74 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
306 swift 1.58 routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
307     </pre>
308    
309     <p>
310 neysx 1.69 To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
311     <c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
312     </p>
313    
314     <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
315     config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
316     dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
317     </pre>
318    
319     <p>
320     Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
321     options.
322     </p>
323    
324     <p>
325 swift 1.58 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
326     <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
327     </p>
328    
329 swift 1.3 <p>
330     Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
331     </p>
332    
333     </body>
334     </subsection>
335     <subsection>
336     <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
337 swift 1.1 <body>
338    
339     <p>
340 neysx 1.45 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
341 swift 1.3 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
342     the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
343     </p>
344    
345     <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
346     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
347     </pre>
348    
349     <p>
350     If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
351     <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
352     use <c>ln</c> to do this:
353 swift 1.1 </p>
354    
355 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
356     # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
357 swift 1.80 # <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
358 swift 1.3 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
359     </pre>
360    
361 swift 1.1 </body>
362 swift 1.3 </subsection>
363     <subsection>
364     <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
365     <body>
366    
367     <p>
368     You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
369 neysx 1.79 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
370 neysx 1.78 hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
371     You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
372     set up your own internal DNS system.
373 swift 1.3 </p>
374    
375     <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
376     # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
377     </pre>
378    
379     <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
380 neysx 1.78 <comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
381     127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
382    
383     <comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
384     they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
385 swift 1.22 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
386     192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
387 swift 1.3 </pre>
388    
389     <p>
390     Save and exit the editor to continue.
391     </p>
392    
393 neysx 1.79 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
394 swift 1.3 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
395 neysx 1.79 link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
396 swift 1.3 following topic on PCMCIA.
397     </p>
398    
399     </body>
400     </subsection>
401 neysx 1.79 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
402 swift 1.3 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
403     <body>
404    
405     <p>
406 swift 1.46 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
407     includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
408     using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
409     to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
410 swift 1.3 </p>
411    
412     <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
413 swift 1.30 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
414 swift 1.3 </pre>
415    
416     <p>
417 swift 1.19 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
418 swift 1.3 runlevel:
419     </p>
420    
421 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
422     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
423 swift 1.3 </pre>
424    
425     </body>
426     </subsection>
427 swift 1.2 </section>
428 neysx 1.79
429     <section id="sysinfo">
430 swift 1.1 <title>System Information</title>
431 swift 1.41 <subsection>
432     <title>Root Password</title>
433     <body>
434    
435     <p>
436     First we set the root password by typing:
437     </p>
438    
439     <pre caption="Setting the root password">
440     # <i>passwd</i>
441     </pre>
442    
443     <p>
444     If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
445     <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
446     </p>
447    
448     <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
449     # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
450     </pre>
451    
452     </body>
453     </subsection>
454     <subsection>
455     <title>System Information</title>
456 swift 1.1 <body>
457    
458     <p>
459 swift 1.3 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
460     Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
461     </p>
462    
463     <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
464     # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
465     </pre>
466    
467     <p>
468 fox2mike 1.67 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
469     </p>
470    
471     <p>
472 swift 1.3 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
473 neysx 1.69 configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
474     define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
475 fox2mike 1.67 </p>
476    
477     <p>
478     Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
479     Edit it to configure your keyboard.
480     </p>
481    
482     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
483     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
484     </pre>
485    
486     <p>
487     Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
488     <c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
489 swift 1.16 </p>
490    
491 neysx 1.79 <note test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
492     Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
493     keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
494     </note>
495    
496     <note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
497     PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB
498     keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
499     set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
500 swift 1.16 </note>
501    
502     <p>
503 fox2mike 1.67 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
504     exit.
505     </p>
506    
507     <p>
508     Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
509     according to your needs.
510 swift 1.29 </p>
511    
512 fox2mike 1.67 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
513     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
514     </pre>
515    
516 swift 1.29 <p>
517 nightmorph 1.82 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c>
518     to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
519 swift 1.61 </p>
520    
521     <p>
522 fox2mike 1.67 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
523     exit.
524 swift 1.59 </p>
525    
526 neysx 1.79 <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
527     Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
528     Tools</uri>.
529 swift 1.59 </p>
530    
531     </body>
532     </subsection>
533 neysx 1.79 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
534 swift 1.59 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
535     <body>
536    
537     <p>
538 neysx 1.79 If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
539     <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
540 swift 1.59 </p>
541    
542 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
543     hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
544     hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
545 swift 1.59 </pre>
546    
547     <p>
548 swift 1.70 You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
549 jkt 1.71 listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
550 swift 1.70 </p>
551    
552     <p>
553 swift 1.59 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
554     System Tools</uri>.
555 swift 1.1 </p>
556    
557     </body>
558 swift 1.41 </subsection>
559 swift 1.1 </section>
560 swift 1.2 </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20