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1 swift 1.18 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2     <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3    
4 swift 1.4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 fox2mike 1.68 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 swift 1.4
7 nightmorph 1.84 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.83 2006/09/08 10:53:26 neysx Exp $ -->
8 swift 1.8
9 swift 1.2 <sections>
10 swift 1.50
11 nightmorph 1.84 <version>7.3</version>
12     <date>2006-09-12</date>
13 swift 1.50
14 swift 1.1 <section>
15     <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 swift 1.3 <subsection>
17     <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 swift 1.1 <body>
19    
20     <p>
21 swift 1.3 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22 neysx 1.79 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
23 swift 1.3 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 neysx 1.45 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25     them or not, etc.)
26 swift 1.1 </p>
27    
28     </body>
29 swift 1.3 </subsection>
30     <subsection>
31     <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>
35 swift 1.17 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 swift 1.9 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 swift 1.3 its own meaning:
38     </p>
39    
40     <ul>
41     <li>
42     The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43     file)
44     </li>
45     <li>
46 neysx 1.79 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
47 swift 1.3 mounted
48     </li>
49     <li>
50     The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51     </li>
52     <li>
53 neysx 1.79 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54     wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
55 swift 1.49 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 neysx 1.79 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
57 swift 1.3 </li>
58     <li>
59     The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60     be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61     </li>
62     <li>
63 swift 1.17 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64     filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65     The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 neysx 1.45 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 swift 1.3 </li>
68     </ul>
69    
70 neysx 1.79 <impo>
71 nightmorph 1.77 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72 neysx 1.79 fstab file</e>, You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73     </impo>
74 swift 1.3
75     <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
76     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
77     </pre>
78    
79 neysx 1.79 </body>
80     <body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
81    
82 swift 1.3 <p>
83 swift 1.17 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
84 neysx 1.79 partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
85     <path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
86 swift 1.3 </p>
87    
88 neysx 1.79 <p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
89     In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
90     usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
91     <path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
92     filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
93     </p>
94    
95     <p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
96     In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
97     usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
98     filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99 swift 1.3 </p>
100    
101     <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102 neysx 1.79 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
103 swift 1.3 </pre>
104    
105     <p>
106 swift 1.35 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
107 swift 1.43 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
108     substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
109     manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
110 swift 1.35 </p>
111    
112 neysx 1.79 </body>
113     <body>
114    
115     <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')">
116     Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
117     <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
118     you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
119     </p>
120    
121     <p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
122     Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
123     <path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
124     drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
125     </p>
126    
127 swift 1.35 <p>
128 neysx 1.79 Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
129 swift 1.3 </p>
130    
131 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
132     <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
133     /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
134     /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
135    
136     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138    
139     /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140 swift 1.3 </pre>
141    
142 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
143     <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
144     /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
145     /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
146    
147     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
148     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
149    
150     /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151     </pre>
152    
153     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
154     <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
155     /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
156     /dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
157    
158     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
159     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160    
161     /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
162     </pre>
163    
164     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
165     /dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
166     /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
167     /dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
168     /dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
169     /dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
170    
171     none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
172     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
173     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
174 swift 1.3
175 neysx 1.79 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
176 swift 1.3 </pre>
177    
178 neysx 1.79 <note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
179     There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
180     adapt the following example to your system.
181     </note>
182    
183     <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
184     /dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
185     /dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
186    
187     none /proc proc defaults 0 0
188     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
189    
190     /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
191     </pre>
192 swift 1.3
193 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
194     /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
195     /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
196 swift 1.3
197 neysx 1.79 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
198     none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
199 swift 1.3
200 neysx 1.79 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
201 swift 1.3 </pre>
202    
203     <p>
204     <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
205     removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
206     <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
207     </p>
208    
209     <p>
210 neysx 1.79 To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
211     mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
212     aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
213 swift 1.3 </p>
214    
215 swift 1.5 <p>
216 neysx 1.34 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
217 swift 1.3 </p>
218    
219     </body>
220     </subsection>
221 swift 1.2 </section>
222     <section>
223 swift 1.1 <title>Networking Information</title>
224 swift 1.3 <subsection>
225 nightmorph 1.84 <title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
226 swift 1.3 <body>
227    
228     <p>
229 swift 1.33 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
230     quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
231     appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
232     choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
233 swift 1.3 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
234     </p>
235    
236 neysx 1.79 <pre caption="Setting the host name">
237 swift 1.66 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
238    
239 neysx 1.79 <comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment>
240 swift 1.66 HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
241 swift 1.3 </pre>
242    
243 nightmorph 1.84 <p>
244     Second we set the domainname in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>:
245     </p>
246    
247     <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
248     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
249    
250     <comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
251     dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
252     </pre>
253    
254     <p>
255     If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
256     one), you need to define that one too:
257     </p>
258    
259     <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
260     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
261    
262     <comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
263     nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
264     </pre>
265    
266 swift 1.3 </body>
267     </subsection>
268     <subsection>
269     <title>Configuring your Network</title>
270     <body>
271    
272     <p>
273     Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
274 fox2mike 1.67 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
275 swift 1.3 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
276     your Gentoo system permanently.
277     </p>
278    
279 fox2mike 1.65 <note>
280     More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
281 swift 1.72 bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
282 fox2mike 1.65 link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
283     </note>
284    
285 swift 1.3 <p>
286     All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
287 swift 1.48 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
288 neysx 1.69 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
289     commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
290     <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
291 swift 1.3 </p>
292    
293     <p>
294 neysx 1.83 DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
295     client. This is described later in <uri
296     link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
297     Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
298 neysx 1.69 </p>
299    
300     <p>
301     If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
302     specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
303     <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
304     this example):
305 swift 1.3 </p>
306    
307     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
308     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
309     </pre>
310    
311 swift 1.58 <p>
312 neysx 1.69 You will see the following file:
313 swift 1.58 </p>
314    
315 neysx 1.69 <pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
316     # This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
317     # scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
318     # please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
319     # in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
320 swift 1.58 </pre>
321    
322     <p>
323 neysx 1.69 To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
324 swift 1.58 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
325     </p>
326    
327     <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
328 swift 1.74 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
329 swift 1.58 routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
330     </pre>
331    
332     <p>
333 neysx 1.69 To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
334     <c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
335     </p>
336    
337     <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
338     config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
339     dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
340     </pre>
341    
342     <p>
343     Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
344     options.
345     </p>
346    
347     <p>
348 swift 1.58 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
349     <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
350     </p>
351    
352 swift 1.3 <p>
353     Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
354     </p>
355    
356     </body>
357     </subsection>
358     <subsection>
359     <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
360 swift 1.1 <body>
361    
362     <p>
363 neysx 1.45 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
364 swift 1.3 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
365     the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
366     </p>
367    
368     <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
369     # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
370     </pre>
371    
372     <p>
373     If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
374     <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
375     use <c>ln</c> to do this:
376 swift 1.1 </p>
377    
378 swift 1.3 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
379     # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
380 swift 1.80 # <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
381 swift 1.3 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
382     </pre>
383    
384 swift 1.1 </body>
385 swift 1.3 </subsection>
386     <subsection>
387     <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
388     <body>
389    
390     <p>
391     You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
392 neysx 1.79 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
393 neysx 1.78 hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
394     You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
395     set up your own internal DNS system.
396 swift 1.3 </p>
397    
398     <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
399     # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
400     </pre>
401    
402     <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
403 neysx 1.78 <comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
404     127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
405    
406     <comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
407     they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
408 swift 1.22 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
409     192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
410 swift 1.3 </pre>
411    
412     <p>
413     Save and exit the editor to continue.
414     </p>
415    
416 neysx 1.79 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
417 swift 1.3 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
418 neysx 1.79 link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
419 swift 1.3 following topic on PCMCIA.
420     </p>
421    
422     </body>
423     </subsection>
424 neysx 1.79 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
425 swift 1.3 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
426     <body>
427    
428     <p>
429 swift 1.46 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
430     includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
431     using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
432     to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
433 swift 1.3 </p>
434    
435     <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
436 swift 1.30 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
437 swift 1.3 </pre>
438    
439     <p>
440 swift 1.19 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
441 swift 1.3 runlevel:
442     </p>
443    
444 swift 1.19 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
445     # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
446 swift 1.3 </pre>
447    
448     </body>
449     </subsection>
450 swift 1.2 </section>
451 neysx 1.79
452     <section id="sysinfo">
453 swift 1.1 <title>System Information</title>
454 swift 1.41 <subsection>
455     <title>Root Password</title>
456     <body>
457    
458     <p>
459     First we set the root password by typing:
460     </p>
461    
462     <pre caption="Setting the root password">
463     # <i>passwd</i>
464     </pre>
465    
466     <p>
467     If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
468     <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
469     </p>
470    
471     <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
472     # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
473     </pre>
474    
475     </body>
476     </subsection>
477     <subsection>
478     <title>System Information</title>
479 swift 1.1 <body>
480    
481     <p>
482 swift 1.3 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
483     Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
484     </p>
485    
486     <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
487     # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
488     </pre>
489    
490     <p>
491 fox2mike 1.67 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
492     </p>
493    
494     <p>
495 swift 1.3 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
496 neysx 1.69 configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
497     define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
498 fox2mike 1.67 </p>
499    
500     <p>
501     Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
502     Edit it to configure your keyboard.
503     </p>
504    
505     <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
506     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
507     </pre>
508    
509     <p>
510     Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
511     <c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
512 swift 1.16 </p>
513    
514 neysx 1.79 <note test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
515     Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
516     keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
517     </note>
518    
519     <note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
520     PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB
521     keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
522     set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
523 swift 1.16 </note>
524    
525     <p>
526 fox2mike 1.67 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
527     exit.
528     </p>
529    
530     <p>
531     Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
532     according to your needs.
533 swift 1.29 </p>
534    
535 fox2mike 1.67 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
536     # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
537     </pre>
538    
539 swift 1.29 <p>
540 nightmorph 1.82 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c>
541     to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
542 swift 1.61 </p>
543    
544     <p>
545 fox2mike 1.67 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
546     exit.
547 swift 1.59 </p>
548    
549 neysx 1.79 <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
550     Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
551     Tools</uri>.
552 swift 1.59 </p>
553    
554     </body>
555     </subsection>
556 neysx 1.79 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
557 swift 1.59 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
558     <body>
559    
560     <p>
561 neysx 1.79 If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
562     <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
563 swift 1.59 </p>
564    
565 swift 1.70 <pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
566     hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
567     hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
568 swift 1.59 </pre>
569    
570     <p>
571 swift 1.70 You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
572 jkt 1.71 listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
573 swift 1.70 </p>
574    
575     <p>
576 swift 1.59 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
577     System Tools</uri>.
578 swift 1.1 </p>
579    
580     </body>
581 swift 1.41 </subsection>
582 swift 1.1 </section>
583 swift 1.2 </sections>

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