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Add necessary xml constructs on top of all hb-files, tx to neysx

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.17 2004/01/06 10:08:38 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Timezone</title>
12 <body>
13
14 <p>
15 You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
16 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
17 symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
18 </p>
19
20 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
21 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
22 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT:)</comment>
23 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
24 </pre>
25
26 </body>
27 </section>
28 <section>
29 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>What is fstab?</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
36 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
37 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
38 (special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
39 etc.).
40 </p>
41
42 </body>
43 </subsection>
44 <subsection>
45 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
46 <body>
47
48 <p>
49 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
50 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
51 its own meaning:
52 </p>
53
54 <ul>
55 <li>
56 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
57 file)
58 </li>
59 <li>
60 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
61 mounted
62 </li>
63 <li>
64 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
65 </li>
66 <li>
67 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
68 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
69 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
70 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
71 </li>
72 <li>
73 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
74 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
75 </li>
76 <li>
77 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
78 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
79 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
80 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary).
81 </li>
82 </ul>
83
84 <p>
85 So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
86 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
87 </p>
88
89 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
90 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
91 </pre>
92
93 <p>
94 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
95 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
96 <path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim.
97 </p>
98
99 <p>
100 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
101 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't
102 be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we
103 would write down:
104 </p>
105
106 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
107 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2
108 </pre>
109
110 <p>
111 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
112 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
113 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
114 </p>
115
116 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
117 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
118 </pre>
119
120 <p>
121 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
122 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
126 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
127 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
128 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
129 </pre>
130
131 <p>
132 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
133 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
134 partitions or drives, for those too):
135 </p>
136
137 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
138 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
139 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
140 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
141
142 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
143 none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
144
145 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
146 </pre>
147
148 <p>
149 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
150 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
151 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
152 </p>
153
154 <p>
155 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
156 SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path>
157 too:
158 </p>
159
160 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
161 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
162 </pre>
163
164 <p>
165 If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
166 </p>
167
168 <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
169 none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
170 </pre>
171
172 <p>
173 Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
174 </p>
175
176 </body>
177 </subsection>
178 </section>
179 <section>
180 <title>Networking Information</title>
181 <subsection>
182 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
183 <body>
184
185 <p>
186 One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite
187 easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate
188 name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can
189 be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
190 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
191 </p>
192
193 <p>
194 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
195 </p>
196
197 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
198 # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
199 </pre>
200
201 <p>
202 Second we set the domainname:
203 </p>
204
205 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
206 # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
207 </pre>
208
209 <p>
210 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
211 one), you need to define that one too:
212 </p>
213
214 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
215 # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
216 </pre>
217
218 <p>
219 Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
220 </p>
221
222 <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
223 # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
224 </pre>
225
226 </body>
227 </subsection>
228 <subsection>
229 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
230 <body>
231
232 <p>
233 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
234 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
235 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
236 your Gentoo system permanently.
237 </p>
238
239 <p>
240 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
241 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
242 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
243 </p>
244
245 <p>
246 First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
247 is used in this example):
248 </p>
249
250 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
251 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
252 </pre>
253
254 <p>
255 The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
256 syntax:
257 </p>
258
259 <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
260 iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
261 </pre>
262
263 <p>
264 If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
265 to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're
266 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
267 link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
268 Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
269 </p>
270
271 <p>
272 So let us give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP
273 (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway
274 192.168.0.1:
275 </p>
276
277 <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
278 <comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
279 iface_eth0="dhcp"
280
281 <comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
282 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
283 gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
284 </pre>
285
286 <p>
287 If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
288 like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
289 shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
290 </p>
291
292 <p>
293 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
294 </p>
295
296 </body>
297 </subsection>
298 <subsection>
299 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
300 <body>
301
302 <p>
303 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
304 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
305 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
306 </p>
307
308 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
309 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
310 </pre>
311
312 <p>
313 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
314 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
315 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
316 </p>
317
318 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
319 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
320 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
321 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
322 </pre>
323
324 </body>
325 </subsection>
326 <subsection>
327 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
328 <body>
329
330 <p>
331 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
332 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
333 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
334 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
335 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
336 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
337 </p>
338
339 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
340 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
341 </pre>
342
343 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
344 127.0.0.1 localhost
345 192.168.0.5 jenny
346 192.168.0.6 benny
347 192.168.0.7 tux
348 </pre>
349
350 <p>
351 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
352 resolution) a single line is sufficient:
353 </p>
354
355 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
356 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
357 </pre>
358
359 <p>
360 Save and exit the editor to continue.
361 </p>
362
363 <p>
364 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
365 link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
366 following topic on PCMCIA.
367 </p>
368
369 </body>
370 </subsection>
371 <subsection>
372 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
373 <body>
374
375 <p>
376 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package:
377 </p>
378
379 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
380 # <i>emerge --usepkg pcmcia-cs</i>
381 </pre>
382
383 <p>
384 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e>
385 runlevel:
386 </p>
387
388 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the boot runlevel">
389 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
390 </pre>
391
392 </body>
393 </subsection>
394 </section>
395 <section>
396 <title>System Information</title>
397 <body>
398
399 <p>
400 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
401 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
402 </p>
403
404 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
405 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
406 </pre>
407
408 <p>
409 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
410 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
411 you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
412 your keyboard.
413 </p>
414
415 <note>
416 Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
417 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
418 </note>
419
420 <p>
421 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
422 continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
423 </p>
424
425 </body>
426 </section>
427 </sections>

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