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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.19 2004/01/09 20:59:21 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>What is fstab?</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20 (special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
21 etc.).
22 </p>
23
24 </body>
25 </subsection>
26 <subsection>
27 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
28 <body>
29
30 <p>
31 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
32 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
33 its own meaning:
34 </p>
35
36 <ul>
37 <li>
38 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39 file)
40 </li>
41 <li>
42 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
43 mounted
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47 </li>
48 <li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63 </li>
64 </ul>
65
66 <p>
67 So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69 </p>
70
71 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73 </pre>
74
75 <p>
76 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78 <path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim.
79 </p>
80
81 <p>
82 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't
84 be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we
85 would write down:
86 </p>
87
88 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2
90 </pre>
91
92 <p>
93 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96 </p>
97
98 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
100 </pre>
101
102 <p>
103 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
104 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
105 </p>
106
107 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
108 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
109 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
110 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111 </pre>
112
113 <p>
114 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
115 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116 partitions or drives, for those too):
117 </p>
118
119 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
120 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
121 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123
124 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125 none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
126
127 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128 </pre>
129
130 <p>
131 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
132 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
133 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
138 SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path>
139 too:
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
143 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
144 </pre>
145
146 <p>
147 If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
148 </p>
149
150 <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151 none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
152 </pre>
153
154 <p>
155 Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
156 </p>
157
158 </body>
159 </subsection>
160 </section>
161 <section>
162 <title>Networking Information</title>
163 <subsection>
164 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
165 <body>
166
167 <p>
168 One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite
169 easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate
170 name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can
171 be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
172 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
173 </p>
174
175 <p>
176 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
177 </p>
178
179 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
180 # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
181 </pre>
182
183 <p>
184 Second we set the domainname:
185 </p>
186
187 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
188 # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
189 </pre>
190
191 <p>
192 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
193 one), you need to define that one too:
194 </p>
195
196 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
197 # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
198 </pre>
199
200 <p>
201 Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
202 </p>
203
204 <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
205 # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
206 </pre>
207
208 </body>
209 </subsection>
210 <subsection>
211 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
212 <body>
213
214 <p>
215 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
216 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
217 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
218 your Gentoo system permanently.
219 </p>
220
221 <p>
222 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
223 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
224 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
225 </p>
226
227 <p>
228 First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
229 is used in this example):
230 </p>
231
232 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
233 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
234 </pre>
235
236 <p>
237 The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
238 syntax:
239 </p>
240
241 <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
242 iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
243 </pre>
244
245 <p>
246 If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
247 to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're
248 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
249 link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
250 Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
251 </p>
252
253 <p>
254 So let us give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP
255 (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway
256 192.168.0.1:
257 </p>
258
259 <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
260 <comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
261 iface_eth0="dhcp"
262
263 <comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
264 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
265 gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
266 </pre>
267
268 <p>
269 If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
270 like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
271 shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
272 </p>
273
274 <p>
275 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
276 </p>
277
278 </body>
279 </subsection>
280 <subsection>
281 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
282 <body>
283
284 <p>
285 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
286 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
287 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
288 </p>
289
290 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
291 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
292 </pre>
293
294 <p>
295 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
296 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
297 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
298 </p>
299
300 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
301 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
302 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
303 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
304 </pre>
305
306 </body>
307 </subsection>
308 <subsection>
309 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
310 <body>
311
312 <p>
313 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
314 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
315 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
316 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
317 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
318 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
319 </p>
320
321 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
322 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
323 </pre>
324
325 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
326 127.0.0.1 localhost
327 192.168.0.5 jenny
328 192.168.0.6 benny
329 192.168.0.7 tux
330 </pre>
331
332 <p>
333 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
334 resolution) a single line is sufficient:
335 </p>
336
337 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
338 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
339 </pre>
340
341 <p>
342 Save and exit the editor to continue.
343 </p>
344
345 <p>
346 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
347 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
348 following topic on PCMCIA.
349 </p>
350
351 </body>
352 </subsection>
353 <subsection>
354 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
355 <body>
356
357 <p>
358 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package:
359 </p>
360
361 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
362 # <i>emerge --usepkg pcmcia-cs</i>
363 </pre>
364
365 <p>
366 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
367 runlevel:
368 </p>
369
370 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
371 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
372 </pre>
373
374 </body>
375 </subsection>
376 </section>
377 <section>
378 <title>System Information</title>
379 <body>
380
381 <p>
382 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
383 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
384 </p>
385
386 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
387 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
388 </pre>
389
390 <p>
391 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
392 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
393 you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
394 your keyboard.
395 </p>
396
397 <note>
398 Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
399 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
400 </note>
401
402 <p>
403 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
404 continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
405 </p>
406
407 </body>
408 </section>
409 </sections>

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