/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.22 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Sat Feb 7 18:24:26 2004 UTC (10 years, 6 months ago) by swift
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.21: +4 -4 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
#40203 - Fix issues with /etc/hosts

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.21 2004/02/03 10:18:07 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>What is fstab?</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20 (special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
21 etc.).
22 </p>
23
24 </body>
25 </subsection>
26 <subsection>
27 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
28 <body>
29
30 <p>
31 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
32 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
33 its own meaning:
34 </p>
35
36 <ul>
37 <li>
38 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39 file)
40 </li>
41 <li>
42 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
43 mounted
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47 </li>
48 <li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63 </li>
64 </ul>
65
66 <p>
67 So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69 </p>
70
71 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73 </pre>
74
75 <p>
76 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78 <path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim.
79 </p>
80
81 <p>
82 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't
84 be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we
85 would write down:
86 </p>
87
88 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2
90 </pre>
91
92 <p>
93 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96 </p>
97
98 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
100 </pre>
101
102 <p>
103 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
104 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
105 </p>
106
107 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
108 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
109 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
110 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111 </pre>
112
113 <p>
114 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
115 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116 partitions or drives, for those too):
117 </p>
118
119 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
120 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
121 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123
124 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125 none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
126
127 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128 </pre>
129
130 <p>
131 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
132 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
133 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
138 SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path>
139 too:
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
143 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
144 </pre>
145
146 <p>
147 If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
148 </p>
149
150 <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151 none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
152 </pre>
153
154 <p>
155 Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
156 </p>
157
158 </body>
159 </subsection>
160 </section>
161 <section>
162 <title>Networking Information</title>
163 <subsection>
164 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
165 <body>
166
167 <p>
168 One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite
169 easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate
170 name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can
171 be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
172 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
173 </p>
174
175 <p>
176 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
177 </p>
178
179 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
180 # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
181 </pre>
182
183 <p>
184 Second we set the domainname:
185 </p>
186
187 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
188 # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
189 </pre>
190
191 <p>
192 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
193 one), you need to define that one too:
194 </p>
195
196 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
197 # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
198 </pre>
199
200 <p>
201 Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
202 </p>
203
204 <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
205 # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
206 </pre>
207
208 </body>
209 </subsection>
210 <subsection>
211 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
212 <body>
213
214 <p>
215 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
216 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
217 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
218 your Gentoo system permanently.
219 </p>
220
221 <p>
222 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
223 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
224 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
225 </p>
226
227 <p>
228 First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
229 is used in this example):
230 </p>
231
232 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
233 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
234 </pre>
235
236 <p>
237 The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
238 syntax:
239 </p>
240
241 <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
242 iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
243 </pre>
244
245 <p>
246 If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
247 to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
248 If you need to setup your network manually and you're
249 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
250 link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
251 Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
252 </p>
253
254 <p>
255 So let us give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP
256 (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway
257 192.168.0.1:
258 </p>
259
260 <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
261 <comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
262 iface_eth0="dhcp"
263
264 <comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
265 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
266 gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
267 </pre>
268
269 <p>
270 If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
271 like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
272 shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
273 </p>
274
275 <p>
276 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
277 </p>
278
279 </body>
280 </subsection>
281 <subsection>
282 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
283 <body>
284
285 <p>
286 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
287 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
288 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
289 </p>
290
291 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
292 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
293 </pre>
294
295 <p>
296 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
297 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
298 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
299 </p>
300
301 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
302 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
303 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
304 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
305 </pre>
306
307 </body>
308 </subsection>
309 <subsection>
310 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
311 <body>
312
313 <p>
314 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
315 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
316 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
317 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
318 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
319 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
320 </p>
321
322 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
323 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
324 </pre>
325
326 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
327 127.0.0.1 localhost
328 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
329 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
330 192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
331 </pre>
332
333 <p>
334 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
335 resolution) a single line is sufficient:
336 </p>
337
338 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
339 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
340 </pre>
341
342 <p>
343 Save and exit the editor to continue.
344 </p>
345
346 <p>
347 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
348 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
349 following topic on PCMCIA.
350 </p>
351
352 </body>
353 </subsection>
354 <subsection>
355 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
356 <body>
357
358 <p>
359 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package:
360 </p>
361
362 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
363 # <i>emerge --usepkg pcmcia-cs</i>
364 </pre>
365
366 <p>
367 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
368 runlevel:
369 </p>
370
371 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
372 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
373 </pre>
374
375 </body>
376 </subsection>
377 </section>
378 <section>
379 <title>System Information</title>
380 <body>
381
382 <p>
383 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
384 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
385 </p>
386
387 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
388 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
389 </pre>
390
391 <p>
392 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
393 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
394 you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
395 your keyboard.
396 </p>
397
398 <note>
399 Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
400 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
401 </note>
402
403 <p>
404 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
405 continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
406 </p>
407
408 </body>
409 </section>
410 </sections>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20