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s/reread/double-check/ your fstab as some people seem to interpret
this as run source or mount -a

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.33 2004/04/15 07:06:36 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>What is fstab?</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20 (special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
21 etc.).
22 </p>
23
24 </body>
25 </subsection>
26 <subsection>
27 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
28 <body>
29
30 <p>
31 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
32 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
33 its own meaning:
34 </p>
35
36 <ul>
37 <li>
38 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39 file)
40 </li>
41 <li>
42 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
43 mounted
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47 </li>
48 <li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63 </li>
64 </ul>
65
66 <p>
67 So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69 </p>
70
71 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73 </pre>
74
75 <p>
76 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
79 </p>
80
81 <p>
82 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't
84 be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we
85 would write down:
86 </p>
87
88 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2
90 </pre>
91
92 <p>
93 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96 </p>
97
98 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
100 </pre>
101
102 <p>
103 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
104 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
105 </p>
106
107 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
108 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
109 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
110 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111 </pre>
112
113 <p>
114 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
115 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116 partitions or drives, for those too):
117 </p>
118
119 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
120 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
121 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123
124 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125 none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
126
127 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128 </pre>
129
130 <p>
131 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
132 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
133 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
138 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
139 <path>/etc/fstab</path>
140 too:
141 </p>
142
143 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
144 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
145 </pre>
146
147 <p>
148 If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
149 </p>
150
151 <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
152 none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
153 </pre>
154
155 <p>
156 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
157 </p>
158
159 </body>
160 </subsection>
161 </section>
162 <section>
163 <title>Networking Information</title>
164 <subsection>
165 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
166 <body>
167
168 <p>
169 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
170 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
171 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
172 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
173 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
174 </p>
175
176 <p>
177 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
178 </p>
179
180 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
181 # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
182 </pre>
183
184 <p>
185 Second we set the domainname:
186 </p>
187
188 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
189 # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
190 </pre>
191
192 <p>
193 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
194 one), you need to define that one too:
195 </p>
196
197 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
198 # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
199 </pre>
200
201 <p>
202 Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
203 </p>
204
205 <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
206 # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
207 </pre>
208
209 </body>
210 </subsection>
211 <subsection>
212 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
213 <body>
214
215 <p>
216 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
217 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
218 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
219 your Gentoo system permanently.
220 </p>
221
222 <p>
223 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
224 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
225 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
226 </p>
227
228 <p>
229 First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
230 is used in this example):
231 </p>
232
233 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
234 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
235 </pre>
236
237 <p>
238 The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
239 syntax:
240 </p>
241
242 <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
243 iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
244 </pre>
245
246 <p>
247 If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
248 to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
249 If you need to setup your network manually and you're
250 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
251 link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
252 Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
253 </p>
254
255 <p>
256 So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
257 IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
258 gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
259 rp-pppoe usage:
260 </p>
261
262 <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
263 <comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
264 iface_eth0="dhcp"
265
266 <comment>(For static IP)</comment>
267 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
268 gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
269
270 <comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
271 iface_eth0="up"
272 </pre>
273
274 <p>
275 If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
276 like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
277 shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
278 </p>
279
280 <p>
281 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
282 </p>
283
284 </body>
285 </subsection>
286 <subsection>
287 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
288 <body>
289
290 <p>
291 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
292 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
293 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
294 </p>
295
296 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
297 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
298 </pre>
299
300 <p>
301 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
302 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
303 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
304 </p>
305
306 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
307 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
308 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
309 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
310 </pre>
311
312 </body>
313 </subsection>
314 <subsection>
315 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
316 <body>
317
318 <p>
319 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
320 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
321 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
322 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
323 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
324 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
325 </p>
326
327 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
328 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
329 </pre>
330
331 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
332 127.0.0.1 localhost
333 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
334 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
335 192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
336 </pre>
337
338 <p>
339 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
340 resolution) a single line is sufficient:
341 </p>
342
343 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
344 127.0.0.1 localhost
345 </pre>
346
347 <p>
348 Save and exit the editor to continue.
349 </p>
350
351 <p>
352 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
353 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
354 following topic on PCMCIA.
355 </p>
356
357 </body>
358 </subsection>
359 <subsection>
360 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
361 <body>
362
363 <note>
364 pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
365 </note>
366
367 <p>
368 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The
369 <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing XFree86 at this moment:
370 </p>
371
372 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
373 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
374 </pre>
375
376 <p>
377 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
378 runlevel:
379 </p>
380
381 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
382 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
383 </pre>
384
385 </body>
386 </subsection>
387 </section>
388 <section>
389 <title>System Information</title>
390 <body>
391
392 <p>
393 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
394 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
395 </p>
396
397 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
398 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
399 </pre>
400
401 <p>
402 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
403 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
404 you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
405 your keyboard.
406 </p>
407
408 <note>
409 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
410 select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
411 </note>
412
413 <p>
414 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
415 ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
416 to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
417 </p>
418
419 <p>
420 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
421 continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
422 </p>
423
424 </body>
425 </section>
426 </sections>

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