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1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3
4 <sections>
5 <section>
6 <title>Timezone</title>
7 <body>
8
9 <p>
10 You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
11 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
12 symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
13 </p>
14
15 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
16 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
17 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
18 # <i>ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
19 </pre>
20
21 </body>
22 </section>
23 <section>
24 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
25 <subsection>
26 <title>What is fstab?</title>
27 <body>
28
29 <p>
30 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
31 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
32 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
33 (special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
34 etc.).
35 </p>
36
37 </body>
38 </subsection>
39 <subsection>
40 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
41 <body>
42
43 <p>
44 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six
45 fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
46 its own meaning:
47 </p>
48
49 <ul>
50 <li>
51 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
52 file)
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
56 mounted
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
60 </li>
61 <li>
62 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
63 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
64 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
65 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated.
66 </li>
67 <li>
68 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
69 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
70 </li>
71 <li>
72 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should
73 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem
74 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case
75 a filesystem check isn't necessary).
76 </li>
77 </ul>
78
79 <p>
80 So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
81 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
82 </p>
83
84 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
85 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
86 </pre>
87
88 <p>
89 Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
91 <path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim.
92 </p>
93
94 <p>
95 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
96 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't
97 be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we
98 would write down:
99 </p>
100
101 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2
103 </pre>
104
105 <p>
106 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
107 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
108 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
109 </p>
110
111 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
112 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
113 </pre>
114
115 <p>
116 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
117 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
118 </p>
119
120 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
121 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
122 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
123 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
124 </pre>
125
126 <p>
127 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
128 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and ofcourse, if you have other
129 partitions or drives, for those too):
130 </p>
131
132 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
133 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
134 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
135 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
136
137 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
138 none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
139
140 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141 </pre>
142
143 <p>
144 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
145 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
146 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
147 </p>
148
149 <p>
150 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
151 SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path>
152 too:
153 </p>
154
155 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
156 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
157 </pre>
158
159 <p>
160 Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
161 </p>
162
163 </body>
164 </subsection>
165 </section>
166 <section>
167 <title>Networking Information</title>
168 <subsection>
169 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
170 <body>
171
172 <p>
173 One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite
174 easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate
175 name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can
176 be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
177 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
178 </p>
179
180 <p>
181 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
182 </p>
183
184 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
185 # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
186 </pre>
187
188 <p>
189 Second we set the domainname:
190 </p>
191
192 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
193 # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
194 </pre>
195
196 <p>
197 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
198 one), you need to define that one too:
199 </p>
200
201 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
202 # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
203 </pre>
204
205 </body>
206 </subsection>
207 <subsection>
208 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
209 <body>
210
211 <p>
212 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
213 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
214 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
215 your Gentoo system permanently.
216 </p>
217
218 <p>
219 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
220 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
221 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
222 </p>
223
224 <p>
225 First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
226 is used in this example):
227 </p>
228
229 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
230 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
231 </pre>
232
233 <p>
234 The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
235 syntax:
236 </p>
237
238 <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
239 iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
240 </pre>
241
242 <p>
243 If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
244 to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're
245 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
246 link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
247 Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
248 </p>
249
250 <p>
251 So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP
252 (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway
253 192.168.0.1:
254 </p>
255
256 <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
257 <comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
258 iface_eth0="dhcp"
259
260 <comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
261 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
262 gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
263 </pre>
264
265 <p>
266 If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
267 like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
268 shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
269 </p>
270
271 <p>
272 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
273 </p>
274
275 </body>
276 </subsection>
277 <subsection>
278 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
279 <body>
280
281 <p>
282 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
283 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
284 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
285 </p>
286
287 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
288 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
289 </pre>
290
291 <p>
292 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
293 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
294 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
295 </p>
296
297 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
298 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
299 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
300 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
301 </pre>
302
303 </body>
304 </subsection>
305 <subsection>
306 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
307 <body>
308
309 <p>
310 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
311 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
312 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
313 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
314 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would
315 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
316 </p>
317
318 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
319 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
320 </pre>
321
322 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
323 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
324 192.168.0.5 jenny
325 192.168.0.56 benny
326 </pre>
327
328 <p>
329 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
330 resolution) a single line is sufficient:
331 </p>
332
333 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
334 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
335 </pre>
336
337 <p>
338 Save and exit the editor to continue.
339 </p>
340
341 <p>
342 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
343 link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
344 following topic on PCMCIA.
345 </p>
346
347 </body>
348 </subsection>
349 <subsection>
350 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
351 <body>
352
353 <p>
354 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package:
355 </p>
356
357 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
358 # <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i>
359 </pre>
360
361 <p>
362 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e>
363 runlevel:
364 </p>
365
366 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
367 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
368 </pre>
369
370 </body>
371 </subsection>
372 </section>
373 <section>
374 <title>System Information</title>
375 <body>
376
377 <p>
378 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
379 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
380 </p>
381
382 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
383 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
384 </pre>
385
386 <p>
387 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
388 configuration variables. When you're finished configuring
389 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue.
390 </p>
391
392 </body>
393 </section>
394 </sections>

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