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Wed Aug 4 08:46:30 2004 UTC (10 years, 4 months ago) by swift
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#58200 - Add Gentoo/PPC64 Handbook
#47705 - Use grub-install instead of grub's interactive shell
Move bootloader instructions to the end of the installation instructions

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.9 2004/08/01 11:20:51 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>What is fstab?</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20 (special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
21 etc.).
22 </p>
23
24 </body>
25 </subsection>
26 <subsection>
27 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
28 <body>
29
30 <p>
31 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
32 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
33 its own meaning:
34 </p>
35
36 <ul>
37 <li>
38 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39 file)
40 </li>
41 <li>
42 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
43 mounted
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47 </li>
48 <li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63 </li>
64 </ul>
65
66 <p>
67 So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69 </p>
70
71 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73 </pre>
74
75 <p>
76 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
79 </p>
80
81 <p>
82 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
84 It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85 </p>
86
87 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
88 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
89 </pre>
90
91 <p>
92 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
93 automatically. Those people should substitute <c>defaults</c> with
94 <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to manually mount this partition
95 every time you want to use it.
96 </p>
97
98 <p>
99 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
100 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
101 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
102 </p>
103
104 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
105 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
106 </pre>
107
108 <p>
109 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
110 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
111 </p>
112
113 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
114 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
115 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
116 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
117 </pre>
118
119 <p>
120 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
121 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
122 partitions or drives, for those too):
123 </p>
124
125 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
126 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
127 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
128 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
129
130 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
131 none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
132
133 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
134 </pre>
135
136 <p>
137 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
138 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
139 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
140 </p>
141
142 <p>
143 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
144 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
145 <path>/etc/fstab</path>
146 too:
147 </p>
148
149 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
150 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
151 </pre>
152
153 <p>
154 If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
155 </p>
156
157 <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158 none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
159 </pre>
160
161 <p>
162 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
163 </p>
164
165 </body>
166 </subsection>
167 </section>
168 <section>
169 <title>Networking Information</title>
170 <subsection>
171 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
172 <body>
173
174 <p>
175 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
176 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
177 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
178 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
179 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
180 </p>
181
182 <p>
183 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
184 </p>
185
186 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
187 # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
188 </pre>
189
190 <p>
191 Second we set the domainname:
192 </p>
193
194 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195 # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
196 </pre>
197
198 <p>
199 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
200 one), you need to define that one too:
201 </p>
202
203 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
204 # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
205 </pre>
206
207 <p>
208 Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
209 </p>
210
211 <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
212 # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
213 </pre>
214
215 </body>
216 </subsection>
217 <subsection>
218 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
219 <body>
220
221 <p>
222 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
223 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
224 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
225 your Gentoo system permanently.
226 </p>
227
228 <p>
229 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
230 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
231 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
232 </p>
233
234 <p>
235 First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
236 is used in this example):
237 </p>
238
239 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
240 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
241 </pre>
242
243 <p>
244 The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
245 syntax:
246 </p>
247
248 <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
249 iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
250 </pre>
251
252 <p>
253 If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
254 to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
255 If you need to setup your network manually and you're
256 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
257 link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
258 Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
259 </p>
260
261 <p>
262 So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
263 IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
264 gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
265 rp-pppoe usage:
266 </p>
267
268 <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
269 <comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
270 iface_eth0="dhcp"
271 <comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
272 <comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
273 <comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
274 <comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
275 dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
276 <comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
277 <comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
278 dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
279
280 <comment>(For static IP)</comment>
281 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
282 gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
283
284 <comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
285 iface_eth0="up"
286 </pre>
287
288 <p>
289 If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
290 like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
291 shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
292 </p>
293
294 <p>
295 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
296 </p>
297
298 </body>
299 </subsection>
300 <subsection>
301 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
302 <body>
303
304 <p>
305 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
306 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
307 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
308 </p>
309
310 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
311 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
312 </pre>
313
314 <p>
315 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
316 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
317 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
318 </p>
319
320 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
321 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
322 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
323 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
324 </pre>
325
326 </body>
327 </subsection>
328 <subsection>
329 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
330 <body>
331
332 <p>
333 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
334 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
335 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
336 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
337 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
338 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
339 </p>
340
341 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
342 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
343 </pre>
344
345 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
346 127.0.0.1 localhost
347 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
348 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
349 192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
350 </pre>
351
352 <p>
353 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
354 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
355 system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>:
356 </p>
357
358 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
359 127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
360 </pre>
361
362 <p>
363 Save and exit the editor to continue.
364 </p>
365
366 <p>
367 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
368 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
369 following topic on PCMCIA.
370 </p>
371
372 </body>
373 </subsection>
374 <subsection>
375 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
376 <body>
377
378 <note>
379 pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
380 </note>
381
382 <p>
383 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The
384 <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
385 </p>
386
387 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
388 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
389 </pre>
390
391 <p>
392 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
393 runlevel:
394 </p>
395
396 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
397 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
398 </pre>
399
400 </body>
401 </subsection>
402 </section>
403 <section>
404 <title>System Information</title>
405 <subsection>
406 <title>Root Password</title>
407 <body>
408
409 <p>
410 First we set the root password by typing:
411 </p>
412
413 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
414 # <i>passwd</i>
415 </pre>
416
417 <p>
418 If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
419 <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
420 </p>
421
422 <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
423 # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
424 </pre>
425
426 </body>
427 </subsection>
428 <subsection>
429 <title>System Information</title>
430 <body>
431
432 <p>
433 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
434 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
435 </p>
436
437 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
438 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
439 </pre>
440
441 <p>
442 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
443 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
444 you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
445 your keyboard.
446 </p>
447
448 <note>
449 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
450 select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
451 </note>
452
453 <p>
454 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
455 ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
456 to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
457 </p>
458
459 <p>
460 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
461 continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
462 Tools</uri>.
463 </p>
464
465 </body>
466 </subsection>
467 </section>
468 </sections>

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