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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.46 2004/09/11 13:34:53 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10 <section>
11 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
12 <subsection>
13 <title>What is fstab?</title>
14 <body>
15
16 <p>
17 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21 them or not, etc.)
22 </p>
23
24 </body>
25 </subsection>
26 <subsection>
27 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
28 <body>
29
30 <p>
31 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
32 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
33 its own meaning:
34 </p>
35
36 <ul>
37 <li>
38 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39 file)
40 </li>
41 <li>
42 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
43 mounted
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47 </li>
48 <li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63 </li>
64 </ul>
65
66 <p>
67 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
68 file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
69 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
70 </p>
71
72 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
73 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
74 </pre>
75
76 <p>
77 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
78 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
79 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
80 </p>
81
82 <p>
83 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
84 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
85 It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
86 </p>
87
88 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
90 </pre>
91
92 <p>
93 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
94 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
95 substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
96 manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
97 </p>
98
99 <p>
100 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
101 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
102 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
103 </p>
104
105 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
106 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
107 </pre>
108
109 <p>
110 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
111 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
112 </p>
113
114 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
115 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
116 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
117 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
118 </pre>
119
120 <p>
121 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
122 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
123 partitions or drives, for those too):
124 </p>
125
126 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
127 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
128 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
129 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
130
131 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
132 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
133
134 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
135 </pre>
136
137 <p>
138 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
139 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
140 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
141 </p>
142
143 <p>
144 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
145 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
146 <path>/etc/fstab</path>
147 too:
148 </p>
149
150 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
152 </pre>
153
154 <p>
155 If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
156 </p>
157
158 <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
159 none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
160 </pre>
161
162 <p>
163 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
164 </p>
165
166 </body>
167 </subsection>
168 </section>
169 <section>
170 <title>Networking Information</title>
171 <subsection>
172 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
173 <body>
174
175 <p>
176 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
177 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
178 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
179 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
180 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
181 </p>
182
183 <p>
184 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
185 </p>
186
187 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
188 # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
189 </pre>
190
191 <p>
192 Second we set the domainname:
193 </p>
194
195 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
196 # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
197 </pre>
198
199 <p>
200 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
201 one), you need to define that one too:
202 </p>
203
204 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
205 # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
206 </pre>
207
208 <p>
209 Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
210 </p>
211
212 <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
213 # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
214 </pre>
215
216 </body>
217 </subsection>
218 <subsection>
219 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
220 <body>
221
222 <p>
223 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
224 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
225 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
226 your Gentoo system permanently.
227 </p>
228
229 <p>
230 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
231 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
232 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
233 </p>
234
235 <p>
236 First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
237 is used in this example):
238 </p>
239
240 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
241 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
242 </pre>
243
244 <p>
245 The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
246 syntax:
247 </p>
248
249 <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
250 iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
251 </pre>
252
253 <p>
254 If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
255 to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
256 If you need to setup your network manually and you're
257 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
258 link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
259 Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
260 </p>
261
262 <p>
263 So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
264 IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
265 gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
266 rp-pppoe usage:
267 </p>
268
269 <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
270 <comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
271 iface_eth0="dhcp"
272 <comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
273 <comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
274 <comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
275 <comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
276 dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
277 <comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
278 <comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
279 dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
280
281 <comment>(For static IP)</comment>
282 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
283 gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
284
285 <comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
286 iface_eth0="up"
287 </pre>
288
289 <p>
290 If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
291 like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
292 shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
293 </p>
294
295 <p>
296 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
297 </p>
298
299 </body>
300 </subsection>
301 <subsection>
302 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
303 <body>
304
305 <p>
306 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
307 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
308 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
309 </p>
310
311 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
312 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
313 </pre>
314
315 <p>
316 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
317 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
318 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
319 </p>
320
321 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
322 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
323 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
324 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
325 </pre>
326
327 </body>
328 </subsection>
329 <subsection>
330 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
331 <body>
332
333 <p>
334 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
335 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
336 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
337 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
338 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
339 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
340 </p>
341
342 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
343 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
344 </pre>
345
346 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
347 127.0.0.1 localhost
348 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
349 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
350 192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
351 </pre>
352
353 <p>
354 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
355 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
356 system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>:
357 </p>
358
359 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
360 127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
361 </pre>
362
363 <p>
364 Save and exit the editor to continue.
365 </p>
366
367 <p>
368 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
369 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
370 following topic on PCMCIA.
371 </p>
372
373 </body>
374 </subsection>
375 <subsection>
376 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
377 <body>
378
379 <note>
380 pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
381 </note>
382
383 <p>
384 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
385 includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
386 using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
387 to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
388 </p>
389
390 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
391 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
392 </pre>
393
394 <p>
395 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
396 runlevel:
397 </p>
398
399 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
400 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
401 </pre>
402
403 </body>
404 </subsection>
405 </section>
406 <section>
407 <title>System Information</title>
408 <subsection>
409 <title>Root Password</title>
410 <body>
411
412 <p>
413 First we set the root password by typing:
414 </p>
415
416 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
417 # <i>passwd</i>
418 </pre>
419
420 <p>
421 If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
422 <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
423 </p>
424
425 <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
426 # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
427 </pre>
428
429 </body>
430 </subsection>
431 <subsection>
432 <title>System Information</title>
433 <body>
434
435 <p>
436 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
437 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
438 </p>
439
440 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
441 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
442 </pre>
443
444 <p>
445 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
446 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
447 you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
448 your keyboard.
449 </p>
450
451 <note>
452 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
453 select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
454 </note>
455
456 <p>
457 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
458 ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
459 to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
460 </p>
461
462 <p>
463 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
464 continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
465 Tools</uri>.
466 </p>
467
468 </body>
469 </subsection>
470 </section>
471 </sections>

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