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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.55 2005/01/04 18:11:20 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.00</version>
12 <date>2005-03-28</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25 them or not, etc.)
26 </p>
27
28 </body>
29 </subsection>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 its own meaning:
38 </p>
39
40 <ul>
41 <li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file)
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted
48 </li>
49 <li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51 </li>
52 <li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61 </li>
62 <li>
63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 </li>
68 </ul>
69
70 <p>
71 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
72 file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74 </p>
75
76 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78 </pre>
79
80 <p>
81 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
88 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
89 It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90 </p>
91
92 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94 </pre>
95
96 <p>
97 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99 substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100 manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101 </p>
102
103 <p>
104 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
105 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
106 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107 </p>
108
109 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
110 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
111 </pre>
112
113 <p>
114 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
115 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116 </p>
117
118 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
119 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
120 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
121 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
122 </pre>
123
124 <p>
125 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127 partitions or drives, for those too):
128 </p>
129
130 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
131 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
132 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
133 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
134
135 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
136 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
137
138 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139 </pre>
140
141 <p>
142 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145 </p>
146
147 <p>
148 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
149 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150 <path>/etc/fstab</path>
151 too:
152 </p>
153
154 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156 </pre>
157
158 <p>
159 If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
160 </p>
161
162 <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
163 none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
164 </pre>
165
166 <p>
167 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
168 </p>
169
170 </body>
171 </subsection>
172 </section>
173 <section>
174 <title>Networking Information</title>
175 <subsection>
176 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
177 <body>
178
179 <p>
180 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
181 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
182 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
183 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
184 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
185 </p>
186
187 <p>
188 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
189 </p>
190
191 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
192 # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
193 </pre>
194
195 <p>
196 Second we set the domainname:
197 </p>
198
199 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
200 # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
201 </pre>
202
203 <p>
204 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
205 one), you need to define that one too:
206 </p>
207
208 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
209 # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
210 </pre>
211
212 <p>
213 Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
214 </p>
215
216 <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
217 # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
218 </pre>
219
220 </body>
221 </subsection>
222 <subsection>
223 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
224 <body>
225
226 <p>
227 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
228 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
229 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
230 your Gentoo system permanently.
231 </p>
232
233 <p>
234 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
235 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
236 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
237 </p>
238
239 <p>
240 First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
241 is used in this example):
242 </p>
243
244 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
245 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
246 </pre>
247
248 <p>
249 The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
250 syntax:
251 </p>
252
253 <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
254 iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
255 </pre>
256
257 <p>
258 If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
259 to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
260 If you need to set up your network manually and you're
261 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
262 link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
263 Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
264 </p>
265
266 <p>
267 So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
268 IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
269 gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
270 rp-pppoe usage:
271 </p>
272
273 <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
274 <comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
275 iface_eth0="dhcp"
276 <comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
277 <comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
278 <comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
279 <comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
280 dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
281 <comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
282 <comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
283 dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
284
285 <comment>(For static IP)</comment>
286 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
287 gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
288
289 <comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
290 iface_eth0="up"
291 </pre>
292
293 <p>
294 If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
295 like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
296 shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
297 </p>
298
299 <p>
300 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
301 </p>
302
303 </body>
304 </subsection>
305 <subsection>
306 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
307 <body>
308
309 <p>
310 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
311 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
312 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
313 </p>
314
315 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
316 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
317 </pre>
318
319 <p>
320 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
321 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
322 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
323 </p>
324
325 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
326 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
327 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
328 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
329 </pre>
330
331 </body>
332 </subsection>
333 <subsection>
334 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
335 <body>
336
337 <p>
338 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
339 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
340 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
341 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
342 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
343 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
344 </p>
345
346 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
347 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
348 </pre>
349
350 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
351 127.0.0.1 localhost
352 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
353 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
354 192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
355 </pre>
356
357 <p>
358 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
359 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
360 system <c>tux</c>:
361 </p>
362
363 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
364 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
365 </pre>
366
367 <p>
368 Save and exit the editor to continue.
369 </p>
370
371 <p>
372 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
373 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
374 following topic on PCMCIA.
375 </p>
376
377 </body>
378 </subsection>
379 <subsection>
380 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
381 <body>
382
383 <note>
384 pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
385 </note>
386
387 <p>
388 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
389 includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
390 using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
391 to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
392 </p>
393
394 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
395 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
396 </pre>
397
398 <p>
399 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
400 runlevel:
401 </p>
402
403 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
404 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
405 </pre>
406
407 </body>
408 </subsection>
409 </section>
410 <section>
411 <title>System Information</title>
412 <subsection>
413 <title>Root Password</title>
414 <body>
415
416 <p>
417 First we set the root password by typing:
418 </p>
419
420 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
421 # <i>passwd</i>
422 </pre>
423
424 <p>
425 If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
426 <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
427 </p>
428
429 <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
430 # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
431 </pre>
432
433 </body>
434 </subsection>
435 <subsection>
436 <title>System Information</title>
437 <body>
438
439 <p>
440 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
441 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
442 </p>
443
444 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
445 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
446 </pre>
447
448 <p>
449 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
450 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
451 you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
452 your keyboard.
453 </p>
454
455 <note>
456 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
457 select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
458 </note>
459
460 <p>
461 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
462 ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
463 to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
464 </p>
465
466 <p>
467 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
468 continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
469 Tools</uri>.
470 </p>
471
472 </body>
473 </subsection>
474 </section>
475 </sections>

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