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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.58 2005/04/08 12:03:44 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.2</version>
12 <date>2005-04-20</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25 them or not, etc.)
26 </p>
27
28 </body>
29 </subsection>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 its own meaning:
38 </p>
39
40 <ul>
41 <li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file)
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted
48 </li>
49 <li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51 </li>
52 <li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61 </li>
62 <li>
63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 </li>
68 </ul>
69
70 <p>
71 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
72 file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74 </p>
75
76 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78 </pre>
79
80 <p>
81 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
88 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
89 It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90 </p>
91
92 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94 </pre>
95
96 <p>
97 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99 substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100 manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101 </p>
102
103 <p>
104 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
105 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
106 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107 </p>
108
109 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
110 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
111 </pre>
112
113 <p>
114 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
115 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116 </p>
117
118 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
119 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
120 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
121 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
122 </pre>
123
124 <p>
125 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127 partitions or drives, for those too):
128 </p>
129
130 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
131 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
132 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
133 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
134
135 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
136 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
137
138 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139 </pre>
140
141 <p>
142 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145 </p>
146
147 <p>
148 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
149 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150 <path>/etc/fstab</path>
151 too:
152 </p>
153
154 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156 </pre>
157
158 <p>
159 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
160 </p>
161
162 </body>
163 </subsection>
164 </section>
165 <section>
166 <title>Networking Information</title>
167 <subsection>
168 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
169 <body>
170
171 <p>
172 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
173 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
174 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
175 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
176 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
177 </p>
178
179 <p>
180 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
181 </p>
182
183 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
184 # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
185 </pre>
186
187 <p>
188 Second we set the domainname:
189 </p>
190
191 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
192 # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
193 </pre>
194
195 <p>
196 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
197 one), you need to define that one too:
198 </p>
199
200 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
201 # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
202 </pre>
203
204 <p>
205 Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
206 </p>
207
208 <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
209 # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
210 </pre>
211
212 </body>
213 </subsection>
214 <subsection>
215 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
216 <body>
217
218 <p>
219 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
220 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
221 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
222 your Gentoo system permanently.
223 </p>
224
225 <p>
226 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
227 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
228 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
229 </p>
230
231 <p>
232 First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
233 is used in this example):
234 </p>
235
236 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
237 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
238 </pre>
239
240 <!-- Old baselayout - current stable -->
241
242 <p>
243 The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
244 syntax:
245 </p>
246
247 <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
248 iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
249 </pre>
250
251 <p>
252 If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
253 to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
254 If you need to set up your network manually and you're
255 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
256 link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
257 Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
258 </p>
259
260 <p>
261 So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
262 IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
263 gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
264 rp-pppoe usage:
265 </p>
266
267 <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
268 <comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
269 iface_eth0="dhcp"
270 <comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
271 <comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
272 <comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
273 <comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
274 dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
275 <comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
276 <comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
277 dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
278
279 <comment>(For static IP)</comment>
280 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
281 gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
282
283 <comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
284 iface_eth0="up"
285 </pre>
286
287 <p>
288 If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
289 like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
290 shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
291 </p>
292
293 <!-- New baselayout - current testing
294
295 <p>
296 The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
297 imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
298 needs to automatically obtain an IP through DHCP, you should set it like so:
299 </p>
300
301 <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP for eth0">
302 config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
303 </pre>
304
305 <p>
306 However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
307 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
308 </p>
309
310 <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
311 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
312 routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
313 </pre>
314
315 <p>
316 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
317 <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
318 </p>
319
320 -->
321
322 <p>
323 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
324 </p>
325
326 </body>
327 </subsection>
328 <subsection>
329 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
330 <body>
331
332 <p>
333 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
334 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
335 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
336 </p>
337
338 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
339 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
340 </pre>
341
342 <p>
343 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
344 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
345 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
346 </p>
347
348 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
349 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
350 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
351 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
352 </pre>
353
354 </body>
355 </subsection>
356 <subsection>
357 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
358 <body>
359
360 <p>
361 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
362 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
363 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
364 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
365 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
366 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
367 </p>
368
369 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
370 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
371 </pre>
372
373 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
374 127.0.0.1 localhost
375 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
376 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
377 192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
378 </pre>
379
380 <p>
381 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
382 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
383 system <c>tux</c>:
384 </p>
385
386 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
387 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
388 </pre>
389
390 <p>
391 Save and exit the editor to continue.
392 </p>
393
394 <p>
395 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
396 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
397 following topic on PCMCIA.
398 </p>
399
400 </body>
401 </subsection>
402 <subsection>
403 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
404 <body>
405
406 <note>
407 pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
408 </note>
409
410 <p>
411 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
412 includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
413 using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
414 to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
415 </p>
416
417 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
418 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
419 </pre>
420
421 <p>
422 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
423 runlevel:
424 </p>
425
426 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
427 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
428 </pre>
429
430 </body>
431 </subsection>
432 </section>
433 <section>
434 <title>System Information</title>
435 <subsection>
436 <title>Root Password</title>
437 <body>
438
439 <p>
440 First we set the root password by typing:
441 </p>
442
443 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
444 # <i>passwd</i>
445 </pre>
446
447 <p>
448 If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
449 <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
450 </p>
451
452 <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
453 # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
454 </pre>
455
456 </body>
457 </subsection>
458 <subsection>
459 <title>System Information</title>
460 <body>
461
462 <p>
463 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
464 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
465 </p>
466
467 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
468 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
469 </pre>
470
471 <p>
472 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
473 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
474 you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
475 your keyboard.
476 </p>
477
478 <note>
479 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
480 select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
481 </note>
482
483 <p>
484 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
485 ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
486 to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
487 </p>
488
489 <p>
490 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
491 </p>
492
493 <p>
494 If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
495 <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
496 </p>
497
498 </body>
499 </subsection>
500 <subsection>
501 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
502 <body>
503
504 <note>
505 The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
506 </note>
507
508 <p>
509 If you are running gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
510 the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
511 </p>
512
513 <pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
514 hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
515 </pre>
516
517 <p>
518 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
519 System Tools</uri>.
520 </p>
521
522 </body>
523 </subsection>
524 </section>
525 </sections>

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