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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.61 2005/05/23 18:13:34 swift Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.4</version>
12 <date>2005-06-09</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25 them or not, etc.)
26 </p>
27
28 </body>
29 </subsection>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 its own meaning:
38 </p>
39
40 <ul>
41 <li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file)
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted
48 </li>
49 <li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51 </li>
52 <li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61 </li>
62 <li>
63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 </li>
68 </ul>
69
70 <p>
71 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
72 file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74 </p>
75
76 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78 </pre>
79
80 <p>
81 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
88 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
89 It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90 </p>
91
92 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94 </pre>
95
96 <p>
97 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99 substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100 manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101 </p>
102
103 <p>
104 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
105 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
106 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107 </p>
108
109 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
110 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
111 </pre>
112
113 <p>
114 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
115 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116 </p>
117
118 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
119 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
120 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
121 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
122 </pre>
123
124 <p>
125 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127 partitions or drives, for those too):
128 </p>
129
130 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
131 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
132 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
133 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
134
135 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
136 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
137
138 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139 </pre>
140
141 <p>
142 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145 </p>
146
147 <p>
148 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
149 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150 <path>/etc/fstab</path>
151 too:
152 </p>
153
154 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156 </pre>
157
158 <p>
159 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
160 </p>
161
162 </body>
163 </subsection>
164 </section>
165 <section>
166 <title>Networking Information</title>
167 <subsection>
168 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
169 <body>
170
171 <p>
172 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
173 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
174 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
175 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
176 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
177 </p>
178
179 <p>
180 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
181 </p>
182
183 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
184 # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
185 </pre>
186
187 <p>
188 Second we set the domainname:
189 </p>
190
191 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
192 # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
193 </pre>
194
195 <p>
196 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
197 one), you need to define that one too:
198 </p>
199
200 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
201 # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
202 </pre>
203
204 <p>
205 Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
206 </p>
207
208 <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
209 # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
210 </pre>
211
212 </body>
213 </subsection>
214 <subsection>
215 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
216 <body>
217
218 <p>
219 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
220 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
221 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
222 your Gentoo system permanently.
223 </p>
224
225 <p>
226 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
227 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
228 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
229 </p>
230
231 <p>
232 First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
233 is used in this example):
234 </p>
235
236 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
237 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
238 </pre>
239
240 <p>
241 The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
242 imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
243 needs to automatically obtain an IP through DHCP, you should set it like so:
244 </p>
245
246 <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP for eth0">
247 config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
248 </pre>
249
250 <p>
251 However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
252 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
253 </p>
254
255 <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
256 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
257 routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
258 </pre>
259
260 <p>
261 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
262 <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
263 </p>
264
265 <p>
266 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
267 </p>
268
269 </body>
270 </subsection>
271 <subsection>
272 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
273 <body>
274
275 <p>
276 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
277 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
278 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
279 </p>
280
281 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
282 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
283 </pre>
284
285 <p>
286 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
287 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
288 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
289 </p>
290
291 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
292 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
293 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
294 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
295 </pre>
296
297 </body>
298 </subsection>
299 <subsection>
300 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
301 <body>
302
303 <p>
304 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
305 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
306 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
307 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
308 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
309 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
310 </p>
311
312 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
313 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
314 </pre>
315
316 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
317 127.0.0.1 localhost
318 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
319 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
320 192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
321 </pre>
322
323 <p>
324 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
325 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
326 system <c>tux</c>:
327 </p>
328
329 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
330 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
331 </pre>
332
333 <p>
334 Save and exit the editor to continue.
335 </p>
336
337 <p>
338 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
339 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
340 following topic on PCMCIA.
341 </p>
342
343 </body>
344 </subsection>
345 <subsection>
346 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
347 <body>
348
349 <note>
350 pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
351 </note>
352
353 <p>
354 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
355 includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
356 using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
357 to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
358 </p>
359
360 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
361 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
362 </pre>
363
364 <p>
365 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
366 runlevel:
367 </p>
368
369 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
370 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
371 </pre>
372
373 </body>
374 </subsection>
375 </section>
376 <section>
377 <title>System Information</title>
378 <subsection>
379 <title>Root Password</title>
380 <body>
381
382 <p>
383 First we set the root password by typing:
384 </p>
385
386 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
387 # <i>passwd</i>
388 </pre>
389
390 <p>
391 If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
392 <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
393 </p>
394
395 <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
396 # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
397 </pre>
398
399 </body>
400 </subsection>
401 <subsection>
402 <title>System Information</title>
403 <body>
404
405 <p>
406 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
407 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
408 </p>
409
410 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
411 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
412 </pre>
413
414 <p>
415 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
416 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
417 you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
418 your keyboard.
419 </p>
420
421 <note>
422 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
423 select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
424 </note>
425
426 <p>
427 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
428 ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
429 to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
430 </p>
431
432 <p>
433 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
434 the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
435 </p>
436
437 <p>
438 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
439 </p>
440
441 <p>
442 If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
443 <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
444 </p>
445
446 </body>
447 </subsection>
448 <subsection>
449 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
450 <body>
451
452 <note>
453 The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
454 </note>
455
456 <p>
457 If you are running Gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
458 the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
459 </p>
460
461 <pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
462 hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
463 </pre>
464
465 <p>
466 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
467 System Tools</uri>.
468 </p>
469
470 </body>
471 </subsection>
472 </section>
473 </sections>

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