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Adding a link to the Gentoo Network Config section. Patch by Jan Kundrat (jkt)

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.64 2005/06/11 18:25:09 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.7</version>
12 <date>2005-06-11</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25 them or not, etc.)
26 </p>
27
28 </body>
29 </subsection>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 its own meaning:
38 </p>
39
40 <ul>
41 <li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file)
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted
48 </li>
49 <li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51 </li>
52 <li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61 </li>
62 <li>
63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 </li>
68 </ul>
69
70 <p>
71 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
72 file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74 </p>
75
76 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78 </pre>
79
80 <p>
81 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
88 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
89 It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90 </p>
91
92 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94 </pre>
95
96 <p>
97 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99 substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100 manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101 </p>
102
103 <p>
104 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
105 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
106 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107 </p>
108
109 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
110 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
111 </pre>
112
113 <p>
114 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
115 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116 </p>
117
118 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
119 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
120 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
121 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
122 </pre>
123
124 <p>
125 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127 partitions or drives, for those too):
128 </p>
129
130 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
131 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
132 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
133 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
134
135 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
136 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
137
138 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139 </pre>
140
141 <p>
142 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145 </p>
146
147 <p>
148 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
149 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150 <path>/etc/fstab</path>
151 too:
152 </p>
153
154 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156 </pre>
157
158 <p>
159 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
160 </p>
161
162 </body>
163 </subsection>
164 </section>
165 <section>
166 <title>Networking Information</title>
167 <subsection>
168 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
169 <body>
170
171 <p>
172 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
173 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
174 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
175 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
176 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
177 </p>
178
179 <p>
180 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
181 </p>
182
183 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
184 # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
185 </pre>
186
187 <p>
188 Second we set the domainname:
189 </p>
190
191 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
192 # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
193 </pre>
194
195 <p>
196 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
197 one), you need to define that one too:
198 </p>
199
200 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
201 # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
202 </pre>
203
204 <p>
205 Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
206 </p>
207
208 <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
209 # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
210 </pre>
211
212 </body>
213 </subsection>
214 <subsection>
215 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
216 <body>
217
218 <p>
219 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
220 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
221 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
222 your Gentoo system permanently.
223 </p>
224
225 <note>
226 More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
227 bonding, bridging, 802.11q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
228 link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
229 </note>
230
231 <p>
232 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
233 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
234 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
235 </p>
236
237 <p>
238 First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
239 is used in this example):
240 </p>
241
242 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
243 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
244 </pre>
245
246 <p>
247 The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
248 imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
249 needs to automatically obtain an IP address through DHCP, you should set it
250 like so:
251 </p>
252
253 <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
254 config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
255 </pre>
256
257 <p>
258 However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
259 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
260 </p>
261
262 <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
263 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
264 routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
265 </pre>
266
267 <p>
268 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
269 <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
270 </p>
271
272 <p>
273 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
274 </p>
275
276 </body>
277 </subsection>
278 <subsection>
279 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
280 <body>
281
282 <p>
283 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
284 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
285 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
286 </p>
287
288 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
289 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
290 </pre>
291
292 <p>
293 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
294 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
295 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
296 </p>
297
298 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
299 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
300 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
301 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
302 </pre>
303
304 </body>
305 </subsection>
306 <subsection>
307 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
308 <body>
309
310 <p>
311 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
312 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
313 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
314 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
315 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
316 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
317 </p>
318
319 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
320 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
321 </pre>
322
323 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
324 127.0.0.1 localhost
325 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
326 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
327 192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
328 </pre>
329
330 <p>
331 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
332 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
333 system <c>tux</c>:
334 </p>
335
336 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
337 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
338 </pre>
339
340 <p>
341 Save and exit the editor to continue.
342 </p>
343
344 <p>
345 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
346 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
347 following topic on PCMCIA.
348 </p>
349
350 </body>
351 </subsection>
352 <subsection>
353 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
354 <body>
355
356 <note>
357 pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
358 </note>
359
360 <p>
361 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
362 includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
363 using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
364 to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
365 </p>
366
367 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
368 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
369 </pre>
370
371 <p>
372 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
373 runlevel:
374 </p>
375
376 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
377 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
378 </pre>
379
380 </body>
381 </subsection>
382 </section>
383 <section>
384 <title>System Information</title>
385 <subsection>
386 <title>Root Password</title>
387 <body>
388
389 <p>
390 First we set the root password by typing:
391 </p>
392
393 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
394 # <i>passwd</i>
395 </pre>
396
397 <p>
398 If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
399 <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
400 </p>
401
402 <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
403 # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
404 </pre>
405
406 </body>
407 </subsection>
408 <subsection>
409 <title>System Information</title>
410 <body>
411
412 <p>
413 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
414 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
415 </p>
416
417 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
418 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
419 </pre>
420
421 <p>
422 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
423 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
424 you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
425 your keyboard.
426 </p>
427
428 <note>
429 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
430 select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
431 </note>
432
433 <p>
434 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
435 ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
436 to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
437 </p>
438
439 <p>
440 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
441 the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
442 </p>
443
444 <p>
445 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
446 </p>
447
448 <p>
449 If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
450 <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
451 </p>
452
453 </body>
454 </subsection>
455 <subsection>
456 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
457 <body>
458
459 <note>
460 The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
461 </note>
462
463 <p>
464 If you are running Gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
465 the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
466 </p>
467
468 <pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
469 hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
470 </pre>
471
472 <p>
473 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
474 System Tools</uri>.
475 </p>
476
477 </body>
478 </subsection>
479 </section>
480 </sections>

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