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Revision 1.66 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Sun Jun 19 11:25:21 2005 UTC (9 years, 6 months ago) by swift
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Changes since 1.65: +15 -6 lines
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Update on configuring the network; using /etc/hostname and /etc/dnsdomainname has been obsoleted in the current stable baselayout as well

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.65 2005/06/11 19:45:37 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.8</version>
12 <date>2005-06-19</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25 them or not, etc.)
26 </p>
27
28 </body>
29 </subsection>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 its own meaning:
38 </p>
39
40 <ul>
41 <li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file)
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted
48 </li>
49 <li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51 </li>
52 <li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61 </li>
62 <li>
63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 </li>
68 </ul>
69
70 <p>
71 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
72 file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74 </p>
75
76 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78 </pre>
79
80 <p>
81 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
88 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
89 It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90 </p>
91
92 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94 </pre>
95
96 <p>
97 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99 substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100 manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101 </p>
102
103 <p>
104 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
105 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
106 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107 </p>
108
109 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
110 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
111 </pre>
112
113 <p>
114 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
115 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116 </p>
117
118 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
119 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
120 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
121 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
122 </pre>
123
124 <p>
125 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127 partitions or drives, for those too):
128 </p>
129
130 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
131 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
132 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
133 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
134
135 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
136 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
137
138 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139 </pre>
140
141 <p>
142 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145 </p>
146
147 <p>
148 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
149 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150 <path>/etc/fstab</path>
151 too:
152 </p>
153
154 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156 </pre>
157
158 <p>
159 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
160 </p>
161
162 </body>
163 </subsection>
164 </section>
165 <section>
166 <title>Networking Information</title>
167 <subsection>
168 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
169 <body>
170
171 <p>
172 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
173 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
174 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
175 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
176 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
177 </p>
178
179 <p>
180 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
181 </p>
182
183 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
184 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
185
186 <comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
187 HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
188 </pre>
189
190 <p>
191 Second we set the domainname:
192 </p>
193
194 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
196
197 <comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
198 DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
199 </pre>
200
201 <p>
202 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
203 one), you need to define that one too:
204 </p>
205
206 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
207 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
208
209 <comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
210 NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
211 </pre>
212
213 <p>
214 Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
215 </p>
216
217 <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
218 # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
219 </pre>
220
221 </body>
222 </subsection>
223 <subsection>
224 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
225 <body>
226
227 <p>
228 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
229 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
230 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
231 your Gentoo system permanently.
232 </p>
233
234 <note>
235 More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
236 bonding, bridging, 802.11q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
237 link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
238 </note>
239
240 <p>
241 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
242 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
243 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
244 </p>
245
246 <p>
247 First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
248 is used in this example):
249 </p>
250
251 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
252 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
253 </pre>
254
255 <p>
256 The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
257 imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
258 needs to automatically obtain an IP address through DHCP, you should set it
259 like so:
260 </p>
261
262 <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
263 config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
264 </pre>
265
266 <p>
267 However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
268 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
269 </p>
270
271 <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
272 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
273 routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
274 </pre>
275
276 <p>
277 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
278 <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
279 </p>
280
281 <p>
282 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
283 </p>
284
285 </body>
286 </subsection>
287 <subsection>
288 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
289 <body>
290
291 <p>
292 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
293 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
294 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
295 </p>
296
297 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
298 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
299 </pre>
300
301 <p>
302 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
303 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
304 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
305 </p>
306
307 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
308 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
309 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
310 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
311 </pre>
312
313 </body>
314 </subsection>
315 <subsection>
316 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
317 <body>
318
319 <p>
320 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
321 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
322 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
323 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
324 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
325 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
326 </p>
327
328 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
329 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
330 </pre>
331
332 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
333 127.0.0.1 localhost
334 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
335 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
336 192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
337 </pre>
338
339 <p>
340 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
341 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
342 system <c>tux</c>:
343 </p>
344
345 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
346 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
347 </pre>
348
349 <p>
350 Save and exit the editor to continue.
351 </p>
352
353 <p>
354 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
355 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
356 following topic on PCMCIA.
357 </p>
358
359 </body>
360 </subsection>
361 <subsection>
362 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
363 <body>
364
365 <note>
366 pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
367 </note>
368
369 <p>
370 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
371 includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
372 using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
373 to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
374 </p>
375
376 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
377 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
378 </pre>
379
380 <p>
381 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
382 runlevel:
383 </p>
384
385 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
386 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
387 </pre>
388
389 </body>
390 </subsection>
391 </section>
392 <section>
393 <title>System Information</title>
394 <subsection>
395 <title>Root Password</title>
396 <body>
397
398 <p>
399 First we set the root password by typing:
400 </p>
401
402 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
403 # <i>passwd</i>
404 </pre>
405
406 <p>
407 If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
408 <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
409 </p>
410
411 <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
412 # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
413 </pre>
414
415 </body>
416 </subsection>
417 <subsection>
418 <title>System Information</title>
419 <body>
420
421 <p>
422 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
423 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
424 </p>
425
426 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
427 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
428 </pre>
429
430 <p>
431 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
432 configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
433 you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
434 your keyboard.
435 </p>
436
437 <note>
438 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
439 select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
440 </note>
441
442 <p>
443 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
444 ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
445 to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
446 </p>
447
448 <p>
449 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
450 the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
451 </p>
452
453 <p>
454 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
455 </p>
456
457 <p>
458 If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
459 <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
460 </p>
461
462 </body>
463 </subsection>
464 <subsection>
465 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
466 <body>
467
468 <note>
469 The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
470 </note>
471
472 <p>
473 If you are running Gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
474 the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
475 </p>
476
477 <pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
478 hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
479 </pre>
480
481 <p>
482 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
483 System Tools</uri>.
484 </p>
485
486 </body>
487 </subsection>
488 </section>
489 </sections>

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