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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.68 2005/06/24 19:38:00 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.10</version>
12 <date>2005-06-28</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25 them or not, etc.)
26 </p>
27
28 </body>
29 </subsection>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 its own meaning:
38 </p>
39
40 <ul>
41 <li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file)
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted
48 </li>
49 <li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51 </li>
52 <li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61 </li>
62 <li>
63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 </li>
68 </ul>
69
70 <p>
71 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
72 file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74 </p>
75
76 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78 </pre>
79
80 <p>
81 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
84 </p>
85
86 <p>
87 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
88 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
89 It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90 </p>
91
92 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94 </pre>
95
96 <p>
97 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99 substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100 manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101 </p>
102
103 <p>
104 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
105 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
106 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107 </p>
108
109 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
110 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
111 </pre>
112
113 <p>
114 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
115 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116 </p>
117
118 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
119 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
120 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
121 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
122 </pre>
123
124 <p>
125 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127 partitions or drives, for those too):
128 </p>
129
130 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
131 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
132 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
133 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
134
135 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
136 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
137
138 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139 </pre>
140
141 <p>
142 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145 </p>
146
147 <p>
148 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
149 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150 <path>/etc/fstab</path>
151 too:
152 </p>
153
154 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156 </pre>
157
158 <p>
159 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
160 </p>
161
162 </body>
163 </subsection>
164 </section>
165 <section>
166 <title>Networking Information</title>
167 <subsection>
168 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
169 <body>
170
171 <p>
172 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
173 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
174 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
175 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
176 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
177 </p>
178
179 <p>
180 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
181 </p>
182
183 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
184 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
185
186 <comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
187 HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
188 </pre>
189
190 <p>
191 Second we set the domainname:
192 </p>
193
194 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
196
197 <comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
198 DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
199 </pre>
200
201 <p>
202 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
203 one), you need to define that one too:
204 </p>
205
206 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
207 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
208
209 <comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
210 NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
211 </pre>
212
213 <p>
214 Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
215 </p>
216
217 <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
218 # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
219 </pre>
220
221 </body>
222 </subsection>
223 <subsection>
224 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
225 <body>
226
227 <p>
228 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
229 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
230 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
231 your Gentoo system permanently.
232 </p>
233
234 <note>
235 More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
236 bonding, bridging, 802.11q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
237 link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
238 </note>
239
240 <p>
241 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
242 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
243 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
244 commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
245 <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
246 </p>
247
248 <p>
249 DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration.
250 </p>
251
252 <p>
253 If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
254 specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
255 <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
256 this example):
257 </p>
258
259 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
260 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
261 </pre>
262
263 <p>
264 You will see the following file:
265 </p>
266
267 <pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
268 # This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
269 # scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
270 # please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
271 # in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
272 </pre>
273
274 <p>
275 To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
276 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
277 </p>
278
279 <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
280 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
281 routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
282 </pre>
283
284 <p>
285 To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
286 <c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
287 </p>
288
289 <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
290 config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
291 dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
292 </pre>
293
294 <p>
295 Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
296 options.
297 </p>
298
299 <p>
300 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
301 <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
302 </p>
303
304 <p>
305 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
306 </p>
307
308 </body>
309 </subsection>
310 <subsection>
311 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
312 <body>
313
314 <p>
315 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
316 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
317 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
318 </p>
319
320 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
321 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
322 </pre>
323
324 <p>
325 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
326 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
327 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
328 </p>
329
330 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
331 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
332 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
333 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
334 </pre>
335
336 </body>
337 </subsection>
338 <subsection>
339 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
340 <body>
341
342 <p>
343 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
344 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
345 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
346 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
347 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
348 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
349 </p>
350
351 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
352 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
353 </pre>
354
355 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
356 127.0.0.1 localhost
357 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
358 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
359 192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
360 </pre>
361
362 <p>
363 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
364 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
365 system <c>tux</c>:
366 </p>
367
368 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
369 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
370 </pre>
371
372 <p>
373 Save and exit the editor to continue.
374 </p>
375
376 <p>
377 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
378 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
379 following topic on PCMCIA.
380 </p>
381
382 </body>
383 </subsection>
384 <subsection>
385 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
386 <body>
387
388 <note>
389 pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
390 </note>
391
392 <p>
393 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
394 includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
395 using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
396 to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
397 </p>
398
399 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
400 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
401 </pre>
402
403 <p>
404 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
405 runlevel:
406 </p>
407
408 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
409 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
410 </pre>
411
412 </body>
413 </subsection>
414 </section>
415 <section>
416 <title>System Information</title>
417 <subsection>
418 <title>Root Password</title>
419 <body>
420
421 <p>
422 First we set the root password by typing:
423 </p>
424
425 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
426 # <i>passwd</i>
427 </pre>
428
429 <p>
430 If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
431 <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
432 </p>
433
434 <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
435 # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
436 </pre>
437
438 </body>
439 </subsection>
440 <subsection>
441 <title>System Information</title>
442 <body>
443
444 <p>
445 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
446 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
447 </p>
448
449 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
450 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
451 </pre>
452
453 <p>
454 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
455 </p>
456
457 <p>
458 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
459 configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
460 define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
461 </p>
462
463 <p>
464 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
465 Edit it to configure your keyboard.
466 </p>
467
468 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
469 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
470 </pre>
471
472 <p>
473 Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
474 <c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
475 </p>
476
477 <note>
478 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
479 select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
480 </note>
481
482 <p>
483 <b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
484 ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
485 to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
486 </p>
487
488 <p>
489 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
490 exit.
491 </p>
492
493 <p>
494 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
495 according to your needs.
496 </p>
497
498 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
499 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
500 </pre>
501
502 <p>
503 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
504 the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
505 </p>
506
507 <p>
508 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
509 exit.
510 </p>
511
512 <p>
513 If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
514 <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
515 </p>
516
517 </body>
518 </subsection>
519 <subsection>
520 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
521 <body>
522
523 <note>
524 The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
525 </note>
526
527 <p>
528 If you are running Gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment the
529 hvc line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login
530 prompt.
531 </p>
532
533 <pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
534 hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
535 </pre>
536
537 <p>
538 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
539 System Tools</uri>.
540 </p>
541
542 </body>
543 </subsection>
544 </section>
545 </sections>

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