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1 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3
4 <sections>
5 <section>
6 <title>Timezone</title>
7 <body>
8
9 <p>
10 You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
11 located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
12 symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
13 </p>
14
15 <pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
16 # <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
17 <comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
18 # <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
19 </pre>
20
21 </body>
22 </section>
23 <section>
24 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
25 <subsection>
26 <title>What is fstab?</title>
27 <body>
28
29 <p>
30 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
31 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
32 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
33 (special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
34 etc.).
35 </p>
36
37 </body>
38 </subsection>
39 <subsection>
40 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
41 <body>
42
43 <p>
44 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six
45 fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
46 its own meaning:
47 </p>
48
49 <ul>
50 <li>
51 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
52 file)
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
56 mounted
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
60 </li>
61 <li>
62 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
63 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
64 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
65 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated.
66 </li>
67 <li>
68 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
69 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
70 </li>
71 <li>
72 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should
73 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem
74 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case
75 a filesystem check isn't necessary).
76 </li>
77 </ul>
78
79 <p>
80 So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
81 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
82 </p>
83
84 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
85 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
86 </pre>
87
88 <p>
89 Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
91 <path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim.
92 </p>
93
94 <p>
95 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
96 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't
97 be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we
98 would write down:
99 </p>
100
101 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2
103 </pre>
104
105 <p>
106 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
107 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
108 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
109 </p>
110
111 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
112 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
113 </pre>
114
115 <p>
116 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
117 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
118 </p>
119
120 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
121 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
122 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
123 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
124 </pre>
125
126 <p>
127 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
128 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
129 partitions or drives, for those too):
130 </p>
131
132 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
133 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
134 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
135 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
136
137 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
138 none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
139
140 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141 </pre>
142
143 <p>
144 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
145 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
146 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
147 </p>
148
149 <p>
150 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
151 SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path>
152 too:
153 </p>
154
155 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
156 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
157 </pre>
158
159 <p>
160 If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
161 </p>
162
163 <pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
164 none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
165 </pre>
166
167 <p>
168 Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
169 </p>
170
171 </body>
172 </subsection>
173 </section>
174 <section>
175 <title>Networking Information</title>
176 <subsection>
177 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
178 <body>
179
180 <p>
181 One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite
182 easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate
183 name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can
184 be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
185 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
186 </p>
187
188 <p>
189 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
190 </p>
191
192 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
193 # <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
194 </pre>
195
196 <p>
197 Second we set the domainname:
198 </p>
199
200 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
201 # <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
202 </pre>
203
204 <p>
205 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
206 one), you need to define that one too:
207 </p>
208
209 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
210 # <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
211 </pre>
212
213 </body>
214 </subsection>
215 <subsection>
216 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
217 <body>
218
219 <p>
220 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
221 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
222 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
223 your Gentoo system permanently.
224 </p>
225
226 <p>
227 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
228 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
229 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
230 </p>
231
232 <p>
233 First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
234 is used in this example):
235 </p>
236
237 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
238 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
239 </pre>
240
241 <p>
242 The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
243 syntax:
244 </p>
245
246 <pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
247 iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
248 </pre>
249
250 <p>
251 If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
252 to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're
253 not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
254 link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
255 Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
256 </p>
257
258 <p>
259 So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP
260 (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway
261 192.168.0.1:
262 </p>
263
264 <pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
265 <comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
266 iface_eth0="dhcp"
267
268 <comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
269 iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
270 gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
271 </pre>
272
273 <p>
274 If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
275 like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
276 shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
277 </p>
278
279 <p>
280 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
281 </p>
282
283 </body>
284 </subsection>
285 <subsection>
286 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
287 <body>
288
289 <p>
290 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
291 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
292 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
293 </p>
294
295 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
296 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
297 </pre>
298
299 <p>
300 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
301 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
302 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
303 </p>
304
305 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
306 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
307 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
308 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
309 </pre>
310
311 </body>
312 </subsection>
313 <subsection>
314 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
315 <body>
316
317 <p>
318 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
319 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
320 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
321 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
322 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would
323 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
324 </p>
325
326 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
327 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
328 </pre>
329
330 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
331 127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork localhost
332 192.168.0.5 jenny
333 192.168.0.56 benny
334 </pre>
335
336 <p>
337 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
338 resolution) a single line is sufficient:
339 </p>
340
341 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
342 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
343 </pre>
344
345 <p>
346 Save and exit the editor to continue.
347 </p>
348
349 <p>
350 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
351 link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
352 following topic on PCMCIA.
353 </p>
354
355 </body>
356 </subsection>
357 <subsection>
358 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
359 <body>
360
361 <p>
362 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package:
363 </p>
364
365 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
366 # <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i>
367 </pre>
368
369 <p>
370 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e>
371 runlevel:
372 </p>
373
374 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
375 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
376 </pre>
377
378 </body>
379 </subsection>
380 </section>
381 <section>
382 <title>System Information</title>
383 <body>
384
385 <p>
386 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
387 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
388 </p>
389
390 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
391 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
392 </pre>
393
394 <p>
395 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
396 configuration variables. When you're finished configuring
397 <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue.
398 </p>
399
400 </body>
401 </section>
402 </sections>

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