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Handbook for 2006.0, "Chuck Norris can divide by zero"

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/draft/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.19 2006/02/26 17:38:31 josejx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.17</version>
12 <date>2006-02-27</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25 them or not, etc.)
26 </p>
27
28 </body>
29 </subsection>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 its own meaning:
38 </p>
39
40 <ul>
41 <li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file)
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted
48 </li>
49 <li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51 </li>
52 <li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61 </li>
62 <li>
63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 </li>
68 </ul>
69
70 <p>
71 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
72 file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74 </p>
75
76 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78 </pre>
79
80 <p>
81 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as Apple <b>PPC</b> machines), don't copy it
84 verbatim.
85 </p>
86
87 <p>
88 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
89 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
90 It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
91 </p>
92
93 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
94 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
95 </pre>
96
97 <p>
98 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
99 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
100 substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
101 manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
106 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
107 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
108 </p>
109
110 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
111 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
112 </pre>
113
114 <p>
115 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
116 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
117 </p>
118
119 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
120 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
121 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123 </pre>
124
125 <p>
126 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
127 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
128 partitions or drives, for those too):
129 </p>
130
131 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
132 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
133 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
134 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
135
136 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138
139 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140 </pre>
141
142 <p>
143 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
144 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
145 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
146 </p>
147
148 <p>
149 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
150 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
151 <path>/etc/fstab</path>
152 too:
153 </p>
154
155 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
156 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
157 </pre>
158
159 <p>
160 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
161 </p>
162
163 </body>
164 </subsection>
165 </section>
166 <section>
167 <title>Networking Information</title>
168 <subsection>
169 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
170 <body>
171
172 <p>
173 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
174 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
175 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
176 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
177 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
178 </p>
179
180 <p>
181 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
182 </p>
183
184 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
185 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
186
187 <comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
188 HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
189 </pre>
190
191 <p>
192 Second we set the domainname:
193 </p>
194
195 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
196 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
197
198 <comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
199 DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
200 </pre>
201
202 <p>
203 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
204 one), you need to define that one too:
205 </p>
206
207 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
208 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
209
210 <comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
211 NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
212 </pre>
213
214 <p>
215 Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
216 </p>
217
218 <pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
219 # <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
220 </pre>
221
222 </body>
223 </subsection>
224 <subsection>
225 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
226 <body>
227
228 <p>
229 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
230 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
231 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
232 your Gentoo system permanently.
233 </p>
234
235 <note>
236 More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
237 bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
238 link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
239 </note>
240
241 <p>
242 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
243 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
244 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
245 commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
246 <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
247 </p>
248
249 <p>
250 DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration.
251 </p>
252
253 <p>
254 If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
255 specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
256 <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
257 this example):
258 </p>
259
260 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
261 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
262 </pre>
263
264 <p>
265 You will see the following file:
266 </p>
267
268 <pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
269 # This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
270 # scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
271 # please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
272 # in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
273 </pre>
274
275 <p>
276 To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
277 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
278 </p>
279
280 <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
281 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
282 routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
283 </pre>
284
285 <p>
286 To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
287 <c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
288 </p>
289
290 <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
291 config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
292 dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
293 </pre>
294
295 <p>
296 Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
297 options.
298 </p>
299
300 <p>
301 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
302 <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
303 </p>
304
305 <p>
306 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
307 </p>
308
309 </body>
310 </subsection>
311 <subsection>
312 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
313 <body>
314
315 <p>
316 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
317 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
318 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
319 </p>
320
321 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
322 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
323 </pre>
324
325 <p>
326 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
327 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
328 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
329 </p>
330
331 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
332 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
333 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
334 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
335 </pre>
336
337 </body>
338 </subsection>
339 <subsection>
340 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
341 <body>
342
343 <p>
344 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
345 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
346 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
347 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
348 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
349 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
350 </p>
351
352 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
353 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
354 </pre>
355
356 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
357 127.0.0.1 localhost
358 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
359 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
360 192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
361 </pre>
362
363 <p>
364 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
365 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
366 system <c>tux</c>:
367 </p>
368
369 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
370 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
371 </pre>
372
373 <p>
374 Save and exit the editor to continue.
375 </p>
376
377 <p>
378 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
379 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
380 following topic on PCMCIA.
381 </p>
382
383 </body>
384 </subsection>
385 <subsection>
386 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
387 <body>
388
389 <note>
390 pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
391 </note>
392
393 <p>
394 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
395 includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
396 using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
397 to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
398 </p>
399
400 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
401 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
402 </pre>
403
404 <p>
405 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
406 runlevel:
407 </p>
408
409 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
410 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
411 </pre>
412
413 </body>
414 </subsection>
415 </section>
416 <section>
417 <title>System Information</title>
418 <subsection>
419 <title>Root Password</title>
420 <body>
421
422 <p>
423 First we set the root password by typing:
424 </p>
425
426 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
427 # <i>passwd</i>
428 </pre>
429
430 <p>
431 If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
432 <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
433 </p>
434
435 <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
436 # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
437 </pre>
438
439 </body>
440 </subsection>
441 <subsection>
442 <title>System Information</title>
443 <body>
444
445 <p>
446 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
447 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
448 </p>
449
450 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
451 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
452 </pre>
453
454 <p>
455 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
456 </p>
457
458 <p>
459 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
460 configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
461 define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
462 </p>
463
464 <p>
465 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
466 Edit it to configure your keyboard.
467 </p>
468
469 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
470 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
471 </pre>
472
473 <p>
474 Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
475 <c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
476 </p>
477
478 <note>
479 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
480 select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86
481 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot
482 have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc
483 keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
484 </note>
485
486 <p>
487 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
488 exit.
489 </p>
490
491 <p>
492 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
493 according to your needs.
494 </p>
495
496 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
497 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
498 </pre>
499
500 <p>
501 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
502 the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows
503 assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
504 you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
505 </p>
506
507 <p>
508 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
509 exit.
510 </p>
511
512 <p>
513 If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with
514 <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
515 </p>
516
517 </body>
518 </subsection>
519 <subsection>
520 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
521 <body>
522
523 <note>
524 The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
525 </note>
526
527 <p>
528 If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console
529 you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the
530 virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
531 </p>
532
533 <pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
534 hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
535 hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
536 </pre>
537
538 <p>
539 You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
540 listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
541 </p>
542
543 <p>
544 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
545 System Tools</uri>.
546 </p>
547
548 </body>
549 </subsection>
550 </section>
551 </sections>

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